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Chapter 1


Supplementary online figures

Fig. 1.1 Past and projected changes population 55 over by age – 1900-2060
Table 1.1 Past and projected changes population 55 over by age – 1900-2060

Fig. 1.2 Graph - web
Fig. 1.2 Elders as percentage of the US population - past and projected

Fig. 1.3 U.S. birthrates 1900-2020

Fig. 1.4 U.S. births 1900-2020

Fig. 1.5 U.S. death rates for different age groups 1900-2020

Fig. 1.6 Life expectancies - Graphs - 1900-2100

Fig. 1.7 U.S. baby boomers at different years - 2000-2060

Fig. 1.8a The structural basis of the body

Fig. 1.8b The structural basis of the body

Fig. 1.9 Homeostasis

Fig. 1.10 Negative feedback diagram

Fig. 1.11 Interactions among types of aging

Fig. 1.12 Reserve capacity

Fig. 1.13 Aging variables



Chapter 2


Supplementary online figures  

Fig. 2.1 The structure of atoms

Fig. 2.2 A chemical reaction with giving and taking of electrons

Fig. 2.3 A chemical reaction with the sharing of electrons

Fig. 2.4 Forming ions from molecules

Fig. 2.5 The hierarchy of body structure

Fig. 2.6 Water molecule and hydrogen bonds

Fig. 2.7 Glucose molecule

Fig. 2.8 Carbohydrate molecules

Fig. 2.9 Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Fig. 2.10 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Fig. 2.11 Amino acids and chain in protein

Fig. 2.12 Levels of complexity of protein molecules

Fig. 2.13 Importance of proper protein structure
Fig. 2.14 Lipids (a) Triglyceride (b) Phospholipid

Fig. 2.15 Fatty Acids (a) Saturated (b) Unsaturated

Fig. 2.16 Steroids (a) General structure. (b) Cholesterol

Fig. 2.17 Cell structure

Fig. 2.18 Cell membrane (a) Molecules composing the cell membrane. (b) Phagocytosis

Fig. 2.19 Mitochondrial structure

Fig. 2.20 The cytoskeleton

Fig. 2.21 Cell life cycle leading to cell reproduction

Fig. 2.22 Chromosome structure


Chapter 3


Supplementary online figures

Fig. 3.1 Components of the integumentary system

Fig. 3.2a Epidermal cells and layers

Fig. 3.2b Melanin production and transfer

Fig. 3.2c Langerhans cells

Fig. 3.3 Inflammation

Fig. 3.4 Bedsores

Fig. 3.5 Skin neoplasms


Chapter 4

Supplementary online figures

Fig. 4.1 The circulatory system, showing the pathway for blood flow
Fig. 4.2 The circulatory system blood flow and lymph flow
Fig. 4.3 The internal structure of the heart and adjoining blood vessels
Fig. 4.4 (a) Cardiac cycle and (b) blood pressure
Fig. 4.5 Layers of the heart
Fig. 4.6 Coronary arteries

Fig. 4.7 Atherosclerosis

Fig. 4.8 Coronary artery disease

Fig. 4.9a Structure of arteries and veins - large

Fig. 4.9b Structure of arteries and veins - smaller artery

Fig. 4.9c Structure of arteries and veins - smaller vein

Fig. 4.9d Structure of arteries and veins - venous valve

Fig. 4.10a Aneurysms - Pressure on a structure

Fig. 4.10b Aneurysms - Clot formation

Fig. 4.10c Aneurysms - Bleeding

Fig. 4.11 Capillary exchange and lymph formation

Fig. 4.12 Capillary structure and capillary exchange

Fig. 4.13 Hemorrhoids

Fig. 4.14 Components of blood

Fig. 4.15 Formation of blood clots

Fig. 4.16 Varicose veins


Chapter 5

Supplementary online figures

Fig. 5.1 The respiratory system and associated structures

Fig. 5.2 Inspiration

Fig. 5.3 Passive expiration: (a) Elastic recoil collapses chest partially, causing

expiration. (b) Elastic recoil collapses balloon, forcing air out.

Fig. 5.4 Forced expiration: (a) Muscle contractions and elastic recoil collapse chest

partially, causing rapid expiration. (b) Pressure from hands and elastic recoil collapse

balloon, forcing air out rapidly

Fig. 5.5 Respiratory passages in the head and neck

Fig. 5.6 The swallowing reflex: (a) tongue pushes food back. (b) soft palate

elevates and epiglottis lowers to close airways. (c) muscle contractions push food into

esophagus. (d) wave of contraction pushes food down to stomach

Fig. 5.7(a) Lower airways and alveoli

Fig. 5.7(b) Lower airways and alveoli
Fig. 5.8 Effects of aging on alveoli: (a) young alveoli. (b) old alveoli

Fig. 5.9 Age changes in respiratory volumes

Fig. 5.10(a) Pulmonary circulation and perfusion of the lungs (perfusion)

Fig. 5.10(b) Pulmonary circulation and perfusion of the lungs (perfusion)

Fig. 5.10(c) Pulmonary circulation and perfusion of the lungs (diffusion)


Chapter 6

Supplementary online figures

Fig. 6.1 The nervous system

Fig. 6.2a Neuron structure
Fig. 6.2b Neuron types

Fig. 6.3a Neuron functioning
Fig. 6.3b Neuron functioning
Fig. 6.4 Reflex pathways involving skeletal muscles

Fig. 6.5 A conscious sensory pathway

Fig. 6.6 A somatic (voluntary) motor pathway

Fig. 6.7 Structure of aging brain

Fig. 6.8 Regions of the brain

Fig. 6.9 Blood vessels that supply the brain

Fig. 6.10 Strokes

Fig. 6.11 Alzheimer’s disease
Fig. 6.12 Plaques and tangles in Alzheimer’s disease

Fig. 6.13 Basal ganglia

Fig. 6.14 Microscopic views of Lewy bodies

Fig. 6.20a Peripheral nervous system; somatic portion

Fig. 6.20b Peripheral nervous system; sympathetic portion
Fig. 6.20c Peripheral nervous system; parasympathetic portion


Chapter 7

Supplementary online figures

Fig. 7.1 Image formation and the pathways used for vision

Fig. 7.2 Structure of the eye

Fig. 7.3 Focusing light

Fig. 7.4 Accommodation to near objects

Fig. 7.5a Structure of the retina and associated eye components

Fig. 7.5b Structure of the macula and associated eye components of the

Fig. 7.6 The eye in its orbit, with external eye muscles and fat

Fig. 7.7 Eyelids and the lacrimal apparatus

Fig. 7.8 Main structures of the ear

Fig. 7.9 Structures of the middle ear and the and internal ear

Fig. 7.10 Pathway of sound vibrations and structures of the cochlea

Fig. 7.11 Differential cochlear sensitivities to sound frequencies

Fig. 7.12 The inner ear

Fig. 7.13 Detecting changes in gravity and speed

Fig. 7.14 Detection of rotation


Chapter 8


Supplementary online figures

Fig. 8.1 Skeletal muscles in the muscle system

Fig. 8.2 Components of a skeletal muscle

Fig. 8.3a Components of a muscle cell

Fig. 8.3b Neuromuscular junction

Fig. 8.4 Obtaining energy in muscle cells

Fig. 8.5 Myofilaments and the process of contraction
Fig. 8.6a Motor units

Fig. 8.6b Motor units


Chapter 9

Supplementary online figures

Fig. 9.1 The skeletal system

Fig. 9.2 Skeletal support for the spinal cord

Fig. 9.3 Skeletal components as anchors and levers

Fig. 9.4 Structure of a bone

Fig. 9.5 Bone tissue: compact bone and trabecular bone

Fig. 9.6 Age changes in bone tissue: (a) Trabecular bone. (b) Cortical bone

Fig. 9.8 Vertebrae and slightly movable joints: (a) Young vertebrae and joints. (b) Crush fractures. (c) Age changes. (d) Intervertebral joints with osteoarthritis.
(a) Young vertebrae and joints

(b) Crush fractures

(c) Age changes

(d) Intervertebral joints with osteoarthritis

Fig. 9.9 Structure of freely movable joints

Fig. 9.10 Osteoarthritis

Fig. 9.11 Effects of rheumatoid arthritis on joint structure: (a) Normal joint. (b) Cartilage replaced with pannus. (c) Pannus and immune reaction remove cartilage and bone. (d) Bones fused by calcification of pannus

Fig. 9.12 Age changes in bone mass


Chapter 10

Supplementary online figures

Fig. 10.1 The digestive system

Fig. 10.2 Tooth structure

Fig. 10.3 Peptic ulcers in the stomach and duodenum

Fig. 10.4 The large intestine: (a) Regions. (b) Rectum and anus

Fig. 10.5 Diseases of the large intestine

Fig. 10.6 Structure of liver lobules

Fig. 10.7 The hepatic portal system

Fig. 10.8 Pathways for bile

Fig. 10.9 Pancreas

Table 10.1 Causes of Diarrhea


Chapter 11

Fig. 11.1 MyPlate icon from the USDA


Chapter 12

Supplementary online figures

Fig. 12.1 The urinary system

Fig. 12.2 Kidney structure

Fig. 12.3 Nephron structure

Fig. 12.4 Filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
Fig. 12.5 Structure of the urinary bladder, urethra, and associated structures


Chapter 13

Supplementary online figures

Fig. 13.1 Male and female reproductive systems

Fig. 13.2 Structure of the male reproductive system

Fig. 13.3 3D view - Structure of the male reproductive system

Fig. 13.4 Structure of the testes

Fig. 13.5 Structure of the seminiferous tubules

Fig. 13.6 Penis structure and erection

Fig. 13.7 Structure of the female reproductive system

Fig. 13.8 3D view - Structure of the female reproductive system

Fig. 13.9 Ovaries, oviducts, uterus and associated structures

Fig. 13.10 Ovarian structure, follicle development, and ovulation

Fig. 13.11 Female genitalia

Fig. 13.12 Structure of the breast

Fig. 13.13 Age changes in the structure of the breast


Chapter 14

Supplementary online figures
Fig. 14.1 The endocrine system

Fig. 14.2 The hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland and posterior pituitary gland

Fig. 14.3 Control of growth hormone secretion - a negative feedback mechanism


Chapter 15

Supplementary online figures

Fig. 15.1 Immune system structures

Fig. 15.2 Development of macrophages, T cells and B cell

Fig. 15.3 Processing and presentation of antigens

Fig. 15.4 Activation and activities of hT cells

Fig. 15.5 Activation and activities of cT cells

Fig. 15.6 Activation and activities of B cells

Fig. 15.7 Primary immune response

Fig. 15.8 Secondary immune response



Chapter 16

Fig. 16.1a Survival curves - 1900-2100 and with artificial ↑ ML

Fig. 16.1b Survival curves - 1900-2100 and with artificial ↑ XL

Fig. 16.1c Survival curves - 1900-2100 and with artificial ↑ ML and ↑ XL

Fig. 16.1a, b, c Survival curves to 2100 with ↑ (a) ML (b) ↑ XL (c) ↑ ML and ↑ XL

Fig. 16.2 World population growth; past and projected

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