Fig. 9.8c Vertebrae and slightly movable joints: (c) Age changes (Thinner compact bone, less dense spongy bone, thinner intervertebral disc, nucleous pulposus bulging into weak vertebrae, concave vertebral surfaces, narrower joint spaces). (Sources of images and videos below. Used with permission.)





  Copyright 2020: Augustine G. DiGiovanna, Ph.D., Salisbury University, Maryland
The materials on this site are licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

This license requires that reusers give credit to the creator. It allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, for noncommercial purposes only. If others modify or adapt the material, they must license the modified material under identical terms.
Previous print editions of the text Human Aging: Biological Perspectives are Copyright 2000, 1994 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. and 2020 by Augustine DiGiovanna.
View License Deed | View Legal Code


Sources of images and videos. Used with permission.


File:Functional spinal unit (FSU).webp


Description English: Functional spinal unit (FSU). The FSU represents the smallest motion segment of the spine and exhibits biomechanical characteristics similar to those of the entire spine. Approximately 70% of applied axial compression is transmitted by the vertebral body and the intervertebral discs, with the remaining 30% of the load being distributed through the facet joints

Date 22 March 2018

Source Kushchayev, S.V., Glushko, T., Jarraya, M. et al. ABCs of the degenerative spine. Insights Imaging 9, 253274 (2018).

Author Irina Nefedova


This file is licensed under the Creative commons Attribution 4.0 International license.

You are free:

         to share to copy, distribute and transmit the work

         to remix to adapt the work

Under the following conditions:

attribution You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

Modified: A.G. DiGiovanna

Added and modified components and labeling. Covered some components and labeling.