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Augustine DiGiovanna, Ph.D.

 

Fig. 15.1 Immune system structures.

 

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https://files.aidsinfo.nih.gov/images/glossaryimages/Immune-System-600.jpg

 

https://www.clevelandclinic.org/healthinfo/ShowImage.ashx?PIC=4501

 

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https://www.frontiersin.org/files/Articles/412822/fbioe-06-00154-HTML-r1/image_m/fbioe-06-00154-g001.jpg

 

Fig. 15.2 Development of macrophages, T cells, and B cells. (See separate figure for Fig. 15.2)

 

(1) Bone marrow cells produce monocytes and lymphocytes. (2) Monocytes enter blood vessels and are transported to capillaries throughout the body. (3a) Some lymphocytes enter blood vessels and are transported to the thymus. (3b) Some lymphocytes enter blood vessels and are transported to other areas, such as bone marrow. (4) Some monocytes leave capillaries and become macrophages (M) among body cells. (5) Lymphocytes in the thymus reproduce and develop HLA receptors and antigen-specific receptors and become T cells (T). (6) T cells with antigen-specific receptors for self-antigens are destroyed (clonal selection). (7) Remaining T cells are transported to lymphatic tissues such as the lymph nodes and spleen. (8) T cells in lymph tissues reproduce and mature to form T cell clones. (9) Lymphocytes in bone marrow reproduce and develop HLA proteins and antigen-specific receptors to become B cells (B). (10) B cells with antigen-specific receptors for self-antigens are destroyed (clonal selection). (11) Remaining B cells enter blood vessels and are transported throughout the body.

 

Fig. 5.3 Processing and presentation of antigens and the formation of specialized T cells. (See separate figure for Fig. 15.3)

 

(1) Macrophages (M) ingest antigen. (2) Macrophages digest antigen and present antigen fragments. (3) T cells (T) with antigen-specific receptors for the antigen join to the presenting macrophage, using HLA receptors and antigen-specific receptors. IL-1 from macrophages stimulates the joined T cells. (4) T cells reproduce and form specialized T cells (hT, cT, dT, sT). (5) Specialized T cells reproduce. (See separate figure for Fig. 15.3)

 

Fig. 15.4 Activation and activities of hT cells. (See separate figure for Fig. 15.4)

 

 (1) Macrophages (M) ingest antigen. (2) Macrophages digest and present the antigen. (3) hT cells with specific receptors for the antigen join the presenting macrophage, using HLA receptors and antigen-specific receptors. (4) hT cells produce IL-2, which stimulates macrophages, hT cells, cT cells, and B cells that are joined to the antigen. (5) hT cells produce lymphokines. (See separate figure for Fig. 15.4)

 

Fig. 15.5 Activation and activities of cT cells.

(See separate figure for Fig. 15.5)

 

(1a) Antigen invades body cells (bc). (2a) cT cells (cT) with specific receptors for the antigen join to the infected body cell, using HLA receptors and antigen-specific receptors. (3a) cT cells produce lymphokines against infected cells. (4a) Infected cells and enclosed antigen are destroyed. (5a) cT cells produce more identical cT cells to attack other body cells that are infected with the antigen. (1b) Body cells become cancer cells (cc) and produce antigens. (2b) cT cells with specific receptors for the antigen join to the cancer cells, using HLA receptors and antigen-specific receptors. (3b) cT cells produce lymphokines against the cancer cells. (4b) Cancer cells are destroyed. (5b) cT cells produce more identical cT cells to attack other identical cancer cells. (See separate figure for Fig. 15.5)

 

Fig. 15.6 Activation and activities of B cells. (See separate figure for Fig. 15.6)

 

(1) Antigen binds to B cells (B) that have specific receptors for the antigen. (2) B cells with bound antigen join hT cells (hT) that have specific receptors for the antigen, using HLA receptors and antigen-specific receptors. (3) hT cells release IL-2, which stimulates B cells to reproduce. (4) Stimulated B cells produce mB cells (mB) and plasma cells (p). (5) Plasma cells produce antibodies that have specific bonding sites for the antigen. (6) Antibodies bind to the antigen. (See separate figure for Fig. 15.6)

 

Fig. 15.7 Primary immune response (See separate figure for Fig. 15.7)

 

Fig. 15.8 Secondary and additional immune responses (See separate figure for Fig. 15.8)

 

Copyright 2020: Augustine G. DiGiovanna, Ph.D., Salisbury University, Maryland

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