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Augustine DiGiovanna, Ph.D.
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Fig. 5.1 The respiratory system and associated structures.
Fig. 5.2 Inspiration.
“Chapter 22: Respiratory System (#2)” – (Slides 4, 7, 10, 16)
“How We Breathe” - (first 2:20 of the video)
Fig. 5.3 Passive expiration: (a) Elastic recoil collapses chest partially, causing
expiration. (b) Elastic recoil collapses balloon, forcing air out.
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“Chapter 22: Respiratory System (#2)” – (Slides 4, 7, 17)
Fig. 5.4 Forced expiration: (a) Muscle contractions and elastic recoil collapse chest
partially, causing rapid expiration. (b) Pressure from hands and elastic recoil collapse
balloon, forcing air out rapidly.
“Chapter 22: Respiratory System (#2)” – (Slides 4, 7, 22)
Fig. 5.5 Respiratory passages in the head and neck.
“Cunningham’s Test-book of Anatomy” (1914) by Internet Archive Book images, Page 1157
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Description Illustration from Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013.
Source Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013.
Author OpenStax College
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Image from page 21 of "A text-book of diseases of the nose and throat" (1907)
Publisher: Philadelphia, London, W. B. Saunders Company
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
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Fig. 5.6 The swallowing reflex: (a) tongue pushes food back. (b) soft palate
Elevates and epiglottis lowers to close airways. (c) muscle contractions push food into
Esophagus. (d) wave of contraction pushes food down to stomach.
“Peristalsis” (First 30 seconds)
Fig. 5.7 Lower Airways And Alveoli.
Fig. 5.8 Effects Of Aging On Alveoli: (A) Young Alveoli. (B) Old Alveoli.
(a) Young alveoli
(b) Old alveoli - (To be added later)
Fig. 5.9 Age changes in respiratory volumes
Fig. 5.10 Pulmonary circulation and perfusion of the lungs.
See the left side for normal alveolar structure
Alveolar membrane components
“The Heart and Circulatory System - How They Work”
Videos for review
“The Lungs and the Pulmonary Circuit”
Copyright 2020: Augustine G. DiGiovanna, Ph.D.,
Salisbury University, Maryland
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Previous print editions of the text Human Aging: Biological Perspectives are © Copyright 2000, 1994 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. and 2020 by Augustine DiGiovanna.
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