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Augustine DiGiovanna, Ph.D.


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Fig. 5.1 The respiratory system and associated structures.



Fig. 5.2 Inspiration.




“Chapter 22: Respiratory System (#2)” – (Slides 4, 7, 10, 16)




“How We Breathe”  - (first 2:20 of the video)


Ribs moving


Ribs moving



Fig. 5.3 Passive expiration: (a) Elastic recoil collapses chest partially, causing

expiration. (b) Elastic recoil collapses balloon, forcing air out.


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“Chapter 22: Respiratory System (#2)” – (Slides 4, 7, 17)



Fig. 5.4 Forced expiration: (a) Muscle contractions and elastic recoil collapse chest

partially, causing rapid expiration. (b) Pressure from hands and elastic recoil collapse

balloon, forcing air out rapidly.


“Chapter 22: Respiratory System (#2)” – (Slides 4, 7, 22)



Fig. 5.5 Respiratory passages in the head and neck.



“Cunningham’s Test-book of Anatomy” (1914) by Internet Archive Book images, Page 1157

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Author            OpenStax College


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Fig. 5.6 The swallowing reflex: (a) tongue pushes food back. (b) soft palate

Elevates and epiglottis lowers to close airways. (c) muscle contractions push food into

Esophagus. (d) wave of contraction pushes food down to stomach.








“Peristalsis” (First 30 seconds)



Fig. 5.7 Lower Airways And Alveoli.




“Gas exchange”



Fig. 5.8 Effects Of Aging On Alveoli: (A) Young Alveoli. (B) Old Alveoli.


(a) Young alveoli


(b) Old alveoli - (To be added later)



Fig. 5.9 Age changes in respiratory volumes



Fig. 5.10 Pulmonary circulation and perfusion of the lungs.


See the left side for normal alveolar structure


Alveolar membrane components




“The Heart and Circulatory System - How They Work”


Videos for review


“The Lungs and the Pulmonary Circuit”



©  Copyright 2020: Augustine G. DiGiovanna, Ph.D., Salisbury University, Maryland
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