Fig. 10.7 The hepatic portal system. (Sources of images and videos below. Used with permission.)


                                    Hepatic portal system vessels







“Liver Function”


“Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Liver”


©  Copyright 2020: Augustine G. DiGiovanna, Ph.D., Salisbury University, Maryland
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Sources of images and videos. Used with permission.

Description Illustration from Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site., Jun 19, 2013.

Source         Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site., Jun 19, 2013.

Author         OpenStax College


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Modified: A.G.DiGiovanna

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Description    English: Nutrients in food are absorbed via intestinal villi to blood (arterioles in red and venules in blue) and lymph (green). A singular villus is shown in the picture and is greatly enlargened.

Long-chain fatty acids, other as fat soluble lipids and medicines move to the lymph. These substances move in the lymph enveloped inside chylomicrons. Chylomicrons move via thoracic duct of the lymphatic system and finally enter the blood via left subclavian vein. Thus they bypass liver's first pass metabolism completely. This can be of use in the case of some medicines if liver cells metabolize the medicine to an inactive form.

Amino acids, carbohydrates and some small short-chain fatty acids are absorbed straight to the blood instead of the lymph. They move to the liver to be processed via hepatic portal vein and then end up into the bodywide blood circulation.

Suomi: Ruoan ravintoaineet imeytyvät ohutsuolen nukkalisäkkeiden kautta vereen (pikkuvaltimot punaisella ja pikkulaskimot sinisellä) ja imunesteeseen (vihreällä). Kuvassa on esitetty yksittäinen nukkalisäke suurennettuna.

Pitkäketjuiset rasvahapot, muut yhtä rasvaliukoiset rasva-aineet (lipidit) ja lääkkeet imeytyvät imunesteeseen. Nämä aineet liikkuvat imunesteessä kylomikroneiden sisällä. Kylomikronit liikkuvat imusuoniston rintatiehyeeseen ja päätyvät lopulta vereen vasemman solislaskimon kohdalta. Siten imusuonistoon päätyneet aineet ohittavat kokonaan maksan ensikierron metabolian. Tämä voi olla hyödyllinen ominaisuus lääkkeillä, jotka metabolisoituvat maksan soluissa ei-aktiiviseen muotoon.

Aminohapot, hiilihydraatit ja jotkin pienet lyhytketjuiset rasvahapot imeytyvät suoraan vereen imunesteen sijaan. Ne liikkuvat maksaan käsiteltäviksi porttilaskimon kautta ja päätyvät sitten koko kehon kattavaan verenkiertoon.

Date            5 April 2018

Source         Own work

Author         Keministi


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“Liver Function”


“Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Liver”