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Augustine DiGiovanna, Ph.D.


Fig. 7.1 Image formation and the pathways used for vision.


Fig. 7.2 Structure of the eye.


Fig. 7.3 Focusing light from (a) close objects and (b) distant objects.


Fig. 7.4 Accommodation to (a) distant objects and (b) near objects.




“Computer-animated model of accommodation”

Complicated terminology, but good simple visuals in the video


“Accommodation and natural lens”

Simple clear video but with no audio, only a written explanation.


“The Near Response of the Eye and Presbyopia, Animation.”

A good video showing the three changes for near vision – convergence, constriction and accommodation – also explains presbyopia


Fig. 7.5 Structure of the retina and associated eye components.


Fig. 7.6 The eye in its orbit, with external eye muscles and fat tissue.


Fig. 7.7 Eyelids and the lacrimal apparatus.


Fig. 7.8 Main structures of the ear.


Fig. 7.9 Structures of the middle ear and the and internal ear


Fig. 7.10 Pathway of sound vibrations and structure of the cochlea.




“The mechanics of the inner ear”


Fig. 7.11 Differential cochlear sensitivities to sound frequencies


Fig. 7.12 The inner ear.




“Hearing and the cochlea”


Fig. 7.13 Detecting changes in gravity and speed


Fig. 7.14 Detection of rotation


©  Copyright 2020: Augustine G. DiGiovanna, Ph.D., Salisbury University, Maryland
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Previous print editions of the text Human Aging: Biological Perspectives are © Copyright 2000, 1994 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. and 2020 by Augustine DiGiovanna.
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