Chapter 9

 Skeletal System - Learning Objectives

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 1. Name and describe the five ways that the skeletal system contributes to homeostasis and quality of life.

 2. Describe the effects of aging on bone cells.

 3. Describe the age changes in the proportions of materials (i.e., protein and minerals) composing bone matrix and describe the effects from these changes.

 4. Describe the timing and the general nature of age changes in the quantity of bone matrix and describe the effects from these changes.

 5. Describe the effects of menopause on bone matrix loss including the reason for the effects, the different effects on trabecular and cortical bone, common fractures that result, and the results from those fractures.

 6. Name five methods for minimizing bone loss,

 7. Define osteoporosis and distinguish between the two types of osteoporosis based on age of onset, main contributing factors, and gender differences.
 
 8. Name and describe the effects from vertebral fractures caused by osteoporosis.

 9. Name and describe the effects from hip fractures caused by osteoporosis.

10. Name the four most important methods (ample exercise, calcium, vitamin D, & estrogen) plus two other methods for reducing the effects of osteoporosis on bone matrix.

 11. Name two main ways to reduce the incidence of fractures for those who have weakened bones from osteoporosis.

12. Describe age changes and effects from age changes in immovable joints.

 13. Describe age changes and effects from age changes in slightly movable joints.

14. Name and describe age changes and effects from age changes in movable joints.
 
15. Describe the effects of exercise on the effects of aging of joints.

16. Rank arthritis among diseases of the elderly.

 17. Describe the effects of osteoarthritis on joint structure and functions.

18. Describe the effects of rheumatoid arthritis on joint structure and functions.

19. List and describe treatments for OA and for RA.

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  Copyright 2020: Augustine G. DiGiovanna, Ph.D., Salisbury University, Maryland
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