Chapter 7
 Eyes and Ears - Outline
Return to Chapter Index

Return to Main Index

I. The eyes
     A. Importance of vision
     B. Image formation and vision
     C. Deterrents to clear vision
          1. Poor focusing
          2. Poor lighting
          3. Nervous system malfunction
II. Forming images - eye components, functions, and age changes
     A. Conjunctiva
     B. Cornea
     C. Iris and pupil
     D. Ciliary body
     E. Lens and suspensory ligaments
          1. Transparency
          2. Opacities
          3. Shape
          4. Elasticity
          5. Presbyopia
     F. Aqueous humor
     G. Vitreous humor
          1. Floaters
          2. Flashers
III. Accommodation
     A. Process
     B. Age changes
IV. Retina
     A. Layers and regions
     B. Cones
     C. Rods
     D. Age changes
          1. Cones
          2. Rods
          3. Processing neurons
          4. Pigmented epithelium and Bruch's membrane
          5. Free radicals in the eye
V. Other eye components - structure, functions, and age changes
     A. Choroid
     B. Sclera
     C. External muscles
     D. Adipose tissue
     E. Eyelids
     F. Lacrimal gland
VI. Two eyes
     A. Advantages
          1. Field of view
          2. Depth perception
     B. Depth perception (binocular vision)
          1. Process
          2. Age changes
VII. Age changes in vision
     A. Light intensity
          1. Declining sensitivity
          2. Declining adaptability
     B. Quality of light - glare
     C. Visual acuity
          1. Close objects
          2. Distant objects
          3. Moving objects
     D. Depth perception (binocular vision)
     E. Field of view
     F. Optimizing vision
VIII. Diseases of the eyes
     A. Minor diseases
          1. Lacrimal fluid
          2. Eye muscles
     B. Cataracts
          1. Incidence
          2. Causes and effects
          3. Prevention and treatment
     C. Age-related macular degeneration
          1. Incidence
          2. Causes and effects
          3. Treatment
     D. Glaucoma
          1. Open-angle glaucoma
          2. Angle-closure glaucoma
          3. Secondary glaucoma
     E. Diabetic retinopathy
          1. Incidence
          2. Causes and effects
          3. Prevention and treatment
IX. The ears - monitoring four conditions
X. Hearing - structures, functions, and age changes
     A. External ear
          1. Pinna
          2. Ear drum
          3. Cerumen (ear wax)
     B. Middle ear
          1. Ear bones
          2. Eustachian tube
     C. Inner ear - fluids, membranes, and neurons
     D. Localizing sound
     E. Central nervous system
XI. Disorders in hearing
     A. Presbycusis
          1. Incidence
          2. Effects
          3. Prevention and compensatory techniques
     B. Tinnitus
XII. Detecting other stimuli
     A. Gravity and changes in speed
     B. Rotation
     C. Age changes (gravity, changes in speed, and rotation
     D. Dizziness and vertigo

Return to Top of Page

Return to Chapter Index

Return to Main Index

©Copyright 1999 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
This material may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in any data base or retrieval system ONLY under one of the following two conditions: (1) If no individual, group, organization, institution, company, corporation or other entity is charged for its use and only for use by instructors and students in courses where students are required to purchase the book HUMAN AGING: BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES by Augustine G. DiGiovanna, The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, 1994 or 2000; (2) If prior written permission is obtained from Augustine G. DiGiovanna.