Chapter 6
 Nervous System - Outline
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I. Introduction
II. Main functions for homeostasis
     A. Overall goal
     B. Monitoring
     C. Communicating
     D. Stimulating
     E. Coordinating
     F. Remembering
     G. Thinking
III. Neurons - structure and functioning
     A. Components
          1. Nerve cell body
          2. Dendrites
          3. Axon
     B. Operations
          1. Reception
          2. Conduction - action potentials
          3. Transmission
               a. Locations
               b. Processes
               c. Outcomes
     C. Neuroglia
     D. Schwann cells
IV. Nervous system organization
     A. Central nervous system
     B. Peripheral nervous system
          1. Sensory portion
          2. Motor portion
               a. Somatic
               b. Autonomic
V. Nervous system pathways
     A. Reflexes
          1. Characteristics and importance
          2. Reflex pathways
     B. Conscious sensation
          1. Characteristics and importance
          2. Pathways
     C. Voluntary movements
          1. Characteristics and importance
          2. Pathways
     D. Higher-level functions
VI. Age changes in sensory functioning and consequences
     A. Skin receptors
     B. Sense of smell
     C. Sense of taste
     D. Other sensory neurons
VII. Age changes in somatic motor functioning
     A. Somatic motor neurons
          1. Number
          2. Action potentials
          3. Neuromuscular transmission
VIII. Age changes in autonomic motor functioning
     A. Overview
     B. Autonomic motor neurons - specific changes
          1. Blood pressure regulation
          2. Temperature regulation
          3. Erection of the penis
          4. Iris and pupil of the eye
          5. Swallowing
     C. Sympathetic neurotransmitters - norepinephrine
IX. Age changes in reflexes
     A. Sensitivity
     B. Speed
     C. Strength
     D. Coordination
X. Age changes in conscious sensation and voluntary movements
XI. Aging changes in the CNS
     A. Spinal cord
     B. Brain
          1. Dimensions
          2. Numbers of neurons - regional differences
          3. Neuron structure and functioning - neurofibrillar tangles
          4. Synapses
               a. Neurotransmitters
               b. Number
               c. Structure
               d. Amyloid plaques
XII. Aging of other brain functions
     A. Memory
          1. Types
          2. Age changes in memory
               a. Short term memory
               b. Long term memory
               c. incidental memory
               d. Working memory
          3. Methods for preserving and improving memory
     B. Thinking
          1. Types of intelligence
          2. Age changes in thinking
               a. Crystallized intelligence
               b. Fluid intelligence
     C. Vocabulary and conversation
     D. Supporting memory and intelligence
     E. Personality
          1. Aspects
          2. Age changes in personality
     F. Sleep
          1. Age changes in sleep - trends and effects
          2. Methods for improving sleep
XIII. Biorhythms
     A. Types
     B. Circadian rhythm
          1. Regulation
          2. Significance
          3. Age changes
XIV. Conclusion - overview of normal age changes
XV. Diseases of the nervous system
     A. Strokes
          1. Incidence and outcomes
          2. Causes, types, and effects
               a. Ischemic strokes
               b. Hemorrhagic strokes
               c. Signs and symptoms
               d. Treatments
XVI. Dementia
     A. Criteria
     B. Incidence by type
     C. Multi-infarct dementia
     D. Alzheimer's disease
          1. Incidence and demographics
          2. Types
          3. Causes
          4. Effects
          5. Diagnosis
          6. Changes in the brain
          7. Plaques and tangles
          8. Beta-amyloid
          9. Tau protein
          10. APOE (apolipoprotein-epsilon)
          11. Presinilins
          12. Genetics of AD
          13. Treatments
     E. Parkinson's disease
          1. Incidence
          2. Causes
          3. Effects
               a. Control of muscles
               b. Other effects
          4. Nervous system changes - neurons and transmitters
          5. Diagnosis
          6. Treatments
     F. Dementia with Lewy bodies

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©Copyright 1999 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
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