Chapter 5
 Respiratory System - Outline
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I. Introduction
II. Main functions for homeostasis
     A. Gas exchange
          1. Need to obtain oxygen
          2. Need to eliminate carbon dioxide
          3. Need for adaptability
          4. Processes
     B. Sound production
III. Ventilation
     A. Main processes
     B. Inspiration
          1. Mechanisms
          2. Work of breathing
     C. Expiration
          1. Passive
               a. Forced
     D. Rate of ventilation (minute volume)
          1. Lung volumes
          2. Respiratory rate
IV. Requirements for ventilation
     A. Contributions by airways
          1. Nasal cavities
          2. Nasopharynx
          3. Pharynx
          4. Larynx, trachea, and primary bronchi
          5. Smaller bronchi, bronchioles, and alveolar ducts
          6. Alveolar sacs and alveoli
     B. Control systems
          1. Nervous system
               a. Brain centers
               b. Nerves
          2. Endocrine system
V. Age changes affecting ventilation
     A. Open airways
          1. Mucus and cilia
          2. Airway structure
     B. Defense mechanisms
     C. Proper pressure changes
          1. Muscles
          2. Skeletal system
          3. Lungs
               a. Fibers
               b. Surface tension
     D. Compliance
     E. Control systems
     F. Consequences
          1. Air flow
          2. Work of breathing
          3. Lung volumes
          4. Minute volume
VI. Perfusion
     A. Mechanisms and adaptability
     B. Age changes in perfusion
          1. Pulmonary blood vessels
          2. Heart function
VII. Diffusion
     A. Mechanisms and adaptability
     B. Age changes in diffusion
VIII. Effects of altered gas exchange
     A. Biological effects
     B. Interactions with life style
IX. Diseases of the respiratory system
     A. Incidence
     B. Causes and prevention
     C. Lung cancer - types and effects
     D. Chronic bronchitis
          1. Development
          2. Effects
          3. Prevention and treatment
     E. Emphysema
          1. Centrilobar emphysema
          2. Panlobar emphysema
          3. Overall effects of emphysema
     F. Pneumonia
          1. Microbial pneumonia - bacterial, viral, and fungal
          2. Dusts and vapors - pulmonary fibrosis
     G. Pulmonary embolism - causes and effect
     H. Control errors
          1. Sleep apnea
          2. Snoring
X. Smoking - effects on the body
XI. Sound production
     A. Importance
     B. Mechanisms
     C. Age changes

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©Copyright 1999 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
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