Chapter 4
 Circulatory System - Outline
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I. Introduction
II. Main functions for homeostasis and need for adaptability
     A. Transportation
     B. Defense
     C. Temperature control
     D. Acid/base balance
III. Heart
     A. Chambers and the cardiac cycle
          1. Sequence
          2. Pressures
          3. Cardiac output
          4. Pacemaker
     B. Valves
     C. Layers - structure and functions
          1. Endocardium
          2. Myocardium
          3. Epicardium
     D. Coronary blood flow
     E. Cardiac adaptability
IV. Age changes in the heart
     A. Resting conditions
     B. Cardiac adaptability
     C. Exercise and the aging heart
V. Diseases of the heart
     A. Incidence and significance
     B. Coronary artery disease - causes, effects, and prevention
          1. Functions of coronary arteries
          2. Effects of atherosclerosis
               a. Structure of arteries
               b. Heart muscle cells
          3. Risk factors and interactions
          4. Smoking
          5. High blood pressure
          6. High blood LDLs (low-density lipoproteins)
          7. Diabetes mellitus
          8. Family history
          9. Advancing age
          10. High blood homocysteine
          11. Physical inactivity
          12. Obesity
          13. Stress
          14. Menopause
          15. Male gender
          16. Personality
          17. High blood iron
          18. Periodontal disease
     C. Congestive heart failure
          1. Incidence
          2. Causes
          3. Effects
     D. Valvular heart disease
VI. Arteries - structure and functions
     A. Inner layer
     B. Middle layer: larger arteries
          1. Strength
          2. Elasticity
     C. Middle layer: smaller arteries
     D. Outer layer
VII. Age changes in arteries
     A. Inner and outer layers
     B. Middle layer: large arteries
          1. Intercellular materials
          2. Size and shape
          3. Effects on blood pressure
     C. Middle layer: smaller arteries
          1. Responsiveness
          2. Thermoregulation
     D. Number of arteries
VIII. Atherosclerosis: an arterial disease
     A. Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis
     B. Importance
     C. Development and effects
          1. Blood flow
          2. Bleeding
     D. Mechanisms promoting atherosclerosis
          1. Endothelial dysfunction
          2. Free radicals
          3. Blood LDLs
          4. Elastase
          5. Glycation
          6. Heat shock proteins
          7. Insulin-like growth factors
     E. Prevention
IX. Capillaries
     A. Structure and function
     B. Age changes in capillaries
X. Veins
     A. Structure and function
          1. Layers
          2. Valves
     B. Age changes in veins
     C. Diseases of veins - causes and effects
          1. Varicose veins
          2. Hemorrhoids
XI. Lymphatics and the spleen
     A. Structure and functions
     B. Age changes in lymphatics and the spleen
XII. Blood - components and functions
     A. Plasma
     B. Red blood cells
     C. Platelets
     D. White blood cells
     E. Age changes in blood
          1. Plasma
          2. Red blood cells
          3. Platelets
          4. White blood cells

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©Copyright 1999 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
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