Chapter 2
 Molecules, Cells and Theories - Outline
Return to Chapter Index

Return to Main Index

I. Hierarchy of the body
     A. Atoms, ions, and molecules
          1. Definitions
          2. Chemical reactions
               a. Reasons
               b. New substances
               c. Energy
     B. Organelles and cells
     C. Tissues, organs, systems, organism
II. Body chemicals - types, structures, and uses
     A. Water
     B. Carbohydrates
     C. Nucleic acids
     D. Proteins
     E. Lipids
     F. Molecular complexes
     G. Free radicals
          1. Importance in aging
          2. Formation
          3. Effects
               a. Damaged molecules
               b. Prevention and repair mechanisms
          4. Glycation
               a. Effects
               b. Prevention
III. Cells - components and functions
     A. Cell membrane
     B. Cytoplasm
     C. Endoplasmic reticulum
     D. Golgi apparatus
     E. Vacuoles
     F. Mitochondria
     G. Microtubules and microfilaments
     H. Nucleus
     I. Genetic control
     J. Cell division
          1. DNA duplication and telomeres
          2. Mitosis
          3. Hayflick limit and replicative senescence
               a. Nature
               b. Significance
     K. Neoplasia
          1. Types
          2. Significance in aging
IV. Apoptosis
V. Genes and aging
     A. Nature and nurture
     B. Methods of study
     C. Age-related abnormalities
VI. Intercellular materials - properties and functions
     A. Amorphous materials
     B. Fibers
          1. Collagen fibers
          2. Elastin fibers
VII. Biological aging theories
     A. Reasons for theories of aging
     B. General characteristics of the theories
          1. Evolutionary theories
          2. Physiological theories
               a. Programmed theories
               b. Stochastic theories
               c. Network theories
     C. Evolutionary theories
          1. Disposable soma theory
          2. Antagonistic pleiotropy theory
          3. Accumulation of late-acting error theory
     D. Physiological theories
          1. Genetic theories
          2. Genetic timers
          3. Limited gene usage theory
          4. Error catastrophe theory
          5. Rate of living theory
          6. Free radical theory
          7. Mitochondrial theory
          8. Mitochondrial DNA theory
          9. Clinker theories
          10. Cross-linkage theories
          11. Hormone theories
          12. Calcium theory
          13. Immune system theories
          14. Wear and tear theory
          15. Network theories

Return to Top of Page

Return to Chapter Index

Return to Main Index

©Copyright 1999 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
This material may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in any data base or retrieval system ONLY under one of the following two conditions: (1) If no individual, group, organization, institution, company, corporation or other entity is charged for its use and only for use by instructors and students in courses where students are required to purchase the book HUMAN AGING: BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES by Augustine G. DiGiovanna, The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, 1994 or 2000; (2) If prior written permission is obtained from Augustine G. DiGiovanna.