Chapter 14
 Endocrine System - Outline
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I. Main components
II. Main functions for homeostasis
     A. Regulating body parts
     B. Monitoring
     C. Communicating
     D. Stimulating
     E. Coordinating
     F. Negative feedback
     G. Positive feedback
III. Comparing endocrine and nervous systems
     A. Rate of functioning
     B. Areas controlled
     C. Coordinated operations
IV. Hormones
     A. Control of secretion
          1. Nervous
          2. Endocrine
          3. Substrate
     B. Hormone elimination
     C. Receptors and responses
          1. Targets and receptors
          2. Variable responsiveness
     D. Hormone effectiveness
V. Specific hormones
     A. Limitations in knowledge
     B. Deficiencies and excesses
     C. Aging of endocrine glands
VI. Growth hormone and IGF-1
     A. Sources and control of secretion
     B. Diurnal rhythms
     C. Effects
     D. Age changes and consequences
     E. Growth hormone supplementation
VII. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
     A. Source and control of secretion
     B. Effects
     C. Age changes and consequences
VIII. Melatonin
     A. Sources, control of secretion, and diurnal rhythm
     B. Effects
     C. Age changes and consequences
     D. Melatonin supplementation
IX. Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)
     A. Source and control of secretion
     B. Effects
     C. Age changes and consequences
X. Calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin)
     A. Source and control of secretion
     B. Effects
     C. Age changes and consequences
XI. Parathormone
     A. Source and control of secretion
     B. Effects
     C. Age changes and consequences
XII. Thymosin
     A. Source and control of secretion
     B. Effects
     C. Age changes and consequences
XIII. Cholecystokinin (CCK)
     A. Source and control of secretion
     B. Effects
     C. Age changes and consequences
XIV. Glucocorticoids
     A. Source, control of secretion, and diurnal rhythm
     B. Effects
     C. Age changes and consequences
XV. Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
     A. Source and control of secretion
     B. Effects
     C. Age changes and consequences
XVI. DHEA
     A. Source and control of secretion
     B. Effects
     C. Age changes and consequences
     D. DHEA supplementation
XVII. Sex hormones in men
     A. Sources, control of secretion, and diurnal rhythm
     B. Forms of testosterone and DHT
     C. Effects
     D. Age changes
          1. Total testosterone
          2. Free testosterone and DHT
          3. Diurnal rhythms
     E. Causes of age changes
     F. Other factors affecting testosterone (and DHT)
     G. Effects of changes in sex hormones
XVIII. Sex hormones in women
     A. Sources and control of secretion
     B. Effects
     C. Age changes
          1. Before menopause
          2. After menopause
               a. Estrogen
               b. Testosterone
               c. FSH and LH
          3. Effects of age changes
               a. Before menopause
               b. During and after menopause
                    (1) Temporary effects
                         (a) Hot flashes
                         (b) Psychological changes
                    (2) Permanent effects
          4. Estrogen replacement therapy
               a. Benefits
               b. Risks
               c. Alternatives
XIX. Insulin and glucagon
     A. Sources and control of secretion
     B. Effects
          1. Insulin
          2. Glucagon
          3. Combined effects
     C. Blood glucose homeostasis
     D. Age changes and consequences
     E. Abnormal changes
          1. Hormone blood levels and target sensitivity
          2. Restoring insulin levels and target sensitivity
          3. Blood glucose levels
               a. Definitions
               b. Decreases in glucose tolerance
               c. Impaired glucose tolerance
XX. Diabetes mellitus (DM)
     A. Definition and types
          1. Insulin-dependent (IDDM)
          2. Non-insulin dependent (NIDDM)
          3. Secondary DM
     B. Incidence
     C. Causes
     D. Main effects and complications
          1. Effects from excess glucose
               a. Sorbitol
               b. Cross-links (glycosylation)
               c. High osmotic pressure
               d. Microbial nutrient
          2. Ketoacidosis
               a. Causes
               b. Consequences
          3. Prevention
          4. Treatments

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