Chapter 12
 Urinary System - Outline
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I. Main structures
II. Main functions for homeostasis
     A. Removing wastes and toxins
     B. Regulating osmotic pressure
     C. Maintaining individual concentrations
     D. Maintaining acid/base balance
     E. Regulating blood pressure
     F. Activating vitamin D
III. Kidneys
     A. Blood vessels
          1. Large vessels
          2. Glomeruli and filtration
     B. Tubules and collecting ducts - reabsorption and secretion
     C. Nephrons
     D. Overall functions and adaptability
IV. Age changes in kidneys
     A. Blood vessels
     B. renal blood flow
     C. Glomerular filtration rate
     D. Tubules and collecting ducts
     E. Other changes
          1. Renin production
          2. Vitamin D activation
     F. Consequences
          1. Reserve capacity
          2. Medications
V. Abnormal and disease changes in kidneys
VI. Ureters
VII. Urinary bladder
     A. Structure and function
     B. Age changes
VIII. Urethra
     A. Structure and function
     B. Age changes
IX. Urination
     A. Normal functioning
     B. Age changes
     C. Urinary incontinence
          1. Incidence
          2. Types
          3. Contributing factors
          4. Effects and complications
          5. Prevention and treatments

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©Copyright 1999 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
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