Chapter 11
 Diet and Nutrition - Outline
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I. Need for nutritional homeostasis
II. Relationships between diet and nutrition
III. Problems from malnutrition
     A. Diversity of problems
     B. Onset - rapid versus gradual
     C. Nature - vague versus specific
     D. Consequences
          1. Difficulty maintaining homeostasis
          2. Decreased enjoyment
          3. Contributing to disease
IV. A proper diet
     A. A word of caution
     B. Diet based on food selection - Food Guide Pyramid
     C. Diet based on chemical composition
          1. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
               a. Specific nutrients
               b. Energy intake
               c. Suggested modifications for the elderly
          2. U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances (U.S. RDAs)
          3. Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intakes (ESADDIs)
          4. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)
          5. Comparing proper diets for younger and older adults
V. Malnutrition among the elderly
     A. Incidence
     B. Reducing and preventing malnutrition
          1. Evaluating nutritional status
          2. Identifying factors contributing to malnutrition
          3. Evaluating and adjusting diet
               a. Main strategy and specific considerations
               b. Providing assistance
          4.  Using supplements - reasons and cautions
          5. A continuing process
VI. Energy and body weight
     A. Energy uses and storage
     B. Dietary sources of energy
          1. Types of molecules
          2. Obtaining energy from molecules
          3. Glycolysis and mitochondria
          4. Kilocalories (kcals)
     C. Energy balance
          1. Effects of energy balance and imbalance
          2. Energy use
               a. Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
               b. Digestion
               c. Physical activity
               d. Defense and healing
               e. Pregnancy
          3. Age-related changes in energy use
               a. BMR
               b. Digestion
               c. Physical activity
               d. Defense and healing
               e. Pregnancy
          4. Age-related changes in energy balance
     D. Overweight and obesity
          1. Using tables
          2. Using body mass index
          3. Using percent body fat
          4. Definitions of obesity
          5. Consequences of obesity
          6. Prevention and correction
     E. Underweight
          1. Definition and causes
          2. Consequences
          3. Prevention and correction
VII. Carbohydrates
     A. Digestible carbohydrates
     B. Indigestible carbohydrates: fiber
          1. Uses
               a. Sugars
               b. Fiber
          2. Recommended dietary intakes
     C. Carbohydrate deficiencies
          1. Digestible carbohydrates
          2. Fiber
     D. Carbohydrate excesses
          1. Digestible carbohydrates
          2. Fiber
VIII. Lipids
     A. Sources
     B. Tri-, di-, and monoglycerides, and fatty acids
     C. Cholesterol
     D. Uses
     E. Recommended dietary intakes
     F. Lipid deficiencies
     G. Lipid excesses and blood lipoproteins
IX. Proteins
     A. Types and sources
     B. Uses
     C. Recommended dietary intakes
     D. Protein deficiencies
     E. Protein excesses
X. Water
     A. Sources and losses
     B. Uses
     C. Recommended dietary intakes
     D. Water deficiencies
     E. Water excesses
XI. Vitamins
     A. Characteristics
     B. Sources
          1. Foods
          2. Supplements
     C. Deficiencies and excesses
XII. Minerals
     A. Characteristics
     B. Sources
     C. Deficiencies and excesses
XIII. Nutrition and alcohol
XIV. Nutrition and medications
XV. Nutrition and disease
XVI. Nutrition and maximum longevity
     A. Dietary restriction (caloric restriction)
     B. Effects

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©Copyright 1999 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
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