Chapter 10
 Digestive System - Outline
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I. Main components
II. Main functions for homeostasis
     A. Supplying nutrients
     B. Converting foods to a usable forms
     C. Absorption
     D. Manufacturing certain materials
     E. Storing and converting excess nutrients
     F. Eliminating toxins and wastes
     G. Other functions
III. Chemistry of digestion - using water and enzymes
IV. Age changes versus other changes
V. Oral region - components, functions, and age changes
     A. Oral mucosa
     B. Teeth
     C. Salivary glands
     D. Muscles
     E. Bones and joints
     F. Abnormal changes
          1. Oral mucosa
          2. Teeth
          3. Salivary glands
          4. Muscles
          5. Bones and joints
VI. Esophagus
     A. Structure and functions
     B. Age changes
     C. Abnormal changes
          1. Esophageal rings and webs
          2. Strictures
          3. Sliding hiatal hernia
          4. Other abnormalities
          5. Effects and complications
          6. Prevention and treatment
VII. Stomach
     A. Secretion and absorption
     B. Movements
     C. Age changes
     D. Abnormal changes - nature, effects, and treatments
          1. Atrophic gastritis
          2. Acute gastritis
          3. Peptic ulcer
VIII. Small intestine
     A. Secretion
     B. Absorption
     C. Movements
     D. Age changes
          1. Lactase secretion
          2. Absorption
     E. Abnormal changes
          1. Peptic ulcer
          2. Secondary abnormalities
IX. Large intestine
     A. Secretion and absorption
     B. Movements
     C. Defecation
     D. Appendix
     E. Age changes
          1. Movements
          2. Defecation
          3. Appendix
     F. Abnormal changes - causes, effects, prevention, and treatment
          1. Constipation
          2. Diarrhea
          3. Fecal incontinence
          4. Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
          5. Hemorrhoids
          6. Cancer
          7. Appendicitis
X. Liver
     A. Blood flow
     B. Bile flow
     C. Functions
          1. Converting foods to a usable form and aiding absorption
          2. Manufacturing, storing, and converting nutrients
          3. Eliminating toxins and wastes
          4. Storing blood
          5. Regulating other blood components
     D. Age changes
          1. Structural changes
          2. Functional changes
     E. Abnormal changes
          1. Cirrhosis
               a. Definition and incidence
               b. Causes
               c. Effects and complications
               d. Prevention and treatment
          2. Cancer
XI. Gall bladder
     A. Structure and functions
     B. Age changes
     C. Abnormal changes: gall stones
          1. Incidence
          2. Causes
          3. Effects and complications
          4. Prevention and treatment
XII. Pancreas
     A. Structure and functions
     B. Age changes
     C. Abnormal changes
          1. Pancreatitis
               a. Definition and incidence
               b. Causes
               c. Effects and complications
               d. Prevention and treatment
          2. Cancer
               a. Definition and incidence
               b. Causes
               c. Effects and complications
               d. Prevention and treatment

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©Copyright 1999 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
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