Chapter 8
 Muscle System - Learning Objectives
Return to Chapter Index

Return to Main Index

 1. Name and describe the methods by which the muscle system contributes to homeostasis and quality of life.

 2. Describe the effects of aging on four of the following parameters for muscle cells and describe practical effects on maintaining homeostasis and quality of life from these age changes.

 3. Describe the effects of age changes in motor neurons and action potentials on muscle performance.

 4. Describe the effects of age changes in neurons other than motor neurons (i.e., sensory, CNS) on muscle performance.

 5. Describe the effects of age changes and disease changes in the circulatory system on muscle functioning.

 6. Describe the effects of aging on muscle mass and name six effects from these changes.

 7. Describe the effects of age changes in the muscle system on (1) reaction time, (2) speed of motion, and (3) skill.

 8. Describe the effects of aging on the four aspects of stamina; i.e., performing extended vigorous activity.

 9. Describe the effects of aging and changes in exercise on VO2 max and describe the effects from these changes.

10. Describe effects on the muscle system and three other systems - circulatory system, skeletal system, endocrine system; on quality of life; on diseases; and on life expectancy from staying physically active -  i.e., maintaining high level of exercise.

11. Describe the effects from reducing levels of physical activity.

12. Describe effects on the muscle system and three other systems - circulatory system, respiratory, nervous, skeletal, endocrine system; on quality of life; on diseases; and on life expectancy from increasing activity when older.

13. Explain why exercise programs for older people must be individualized.

14. Name six important steps or considerations in planning an exercise program for elders.

15. Describe effects of age changes and abnormal changes on ability to drive motor vehicles.

16. Explain why driving a motor vehicle is important to many elderly.

17. List ways by which adequate transportation can be retained longer in spite of age changes.

Return to Top of Page

Return to Main Index

Return to Chapter Index
 
© Copyright 1999 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
This material MAY be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in any data base or retrieval system ONLY under one of the following two conditions: (1) If no individual, group, organization, institution, company, corporation or other entity is charged for its use and only for use by instructors and students in courses where students are required to purchase the book HUMAN AGING: BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES by Augustine G. DiGiovanna, The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, 1994 or 2000; (2) If prior written permission is obtained from Augustine G. DiGiovanna.