Chapter 4
 Circulatory System - Learning Objectives
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 1. Name and explain the importance of the four ways the circulatory system helps maintain homeostasis.

 2. Briefly describe the importance of adaptability in the circulatory system's roles in transportation, defense, and temperature control.

 3. Describe the functioning and the importance of heart valves.

 4. Briefly describe the overall effects from age changes in the cardiac cycle, heart valves, endocardium, and epicardium, and cardiac vessels.

 5. Describe the effects of aging on cardiac output and on the heart's efficiency at rest and during exercise.

  6. Describe two ways by which compensatory age changes result in no age change in cardiac output (at rest or during exercise).

 7. Describe the characteristics of exercise programs that improve cardiac functioning in older people.

 8. Describe the trends in heart disease (incidence, severity) as age increases and describe the reasons for these trends.

 9. Rank heart disease among the elderly with regard to incidence and causes of death.

10. Explain why adequate coronary blood flow is necessary.

11. Describe the ways that coronary atherosclerosis leads to inadequate coronary blood flow and describe the effects resulting from inadequate coronary blood flow.

12. Explain what happens during angina and during a heart attack (myocardial infarction, M. I.)

13. Explain why following preventative measures for coronary atherosclerosis and the resulting coronary disease is important in biological as well as other ways in a person s life.

14. Name the three most important risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis and describe ways by which these risk factors can be reduced or eliminated.

15. Name seven risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis.

16. Explain the interrelatedness among risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis.

17. Explain how congestive heart failure develops and describe how it causes problems.

18. Describe the main harmful effect from valvular heart disease.

19. Describe the overall effects from age changes in each of the three layers in large arteries andin smaller arteries.

20. Explain how age changes in arteries lead to increased systolic blood pressure.

21. Describe two significant effects from high blood pressure.

22. Name two areas of the body where aging causes a decrease in the number of arteries.

23. Name and describe the effects from the four changes in arterial properties caused by atherosclerosis.

24. Perform objectives 8, 10, 11, 13-16 for atherosclerosis in any body area. (These are the same for the corresponding heart objectives except for the addition of weakness and aneurysms.)

25. List and describe mechanisms believed to promote or cause the development of atheromas.

26. Describe two age changes in capillaries and explain the effects from these changes.

27. Describe the overall effects from age changes in veins.

28. Describe varicose veins, indicate that they are a disease, explain how they develop, name and describe three effects they produce, and name and describe three ways to reduce their occurrence.

29. Describe what hemorrhoids are and name three ways to reduce their occurrence.

30. Describe the overall effects of age changes in the lymphatic system (except for lymphocytes).

31. Describe the overall effects from age changes in blood plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.

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© Copyright 1999 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
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