Chapter 13
 Reproductive Systems - Learning Objectives
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 1. Name the five reproductive system functions that are necessary for reproduction.

 2. Describe the importance of sexual activity beyond its contributions to reproduction.

 3. Explain that the hormones produced in connection with reproductive systems have other important roles and describe three of these roles for testosterone and for estrogen.

 4. Describe the overall age changes and age-related changes in male reproductive functioning and describe the effects from these changes.

 5. Name specific factors other than reproductive system aging that have significant effects on male and female sexual responses.

 6. Name and describe effects of aging on the five phases of male sexual response (p. 273), and describe the overall effects on sexual response from these individual effects.

7. Define menopause and explain its significance with respect to the reproductive capabilities of women.

 8. Explain why menstrual cycles seem to become irregular and lengthen and as menopause approaches.

 9. Describe the overall effects of menopause on female reproductive structures and explain the reason for these effects.

10. Describe the overall effects of menopause and estrogen replacement therapy on the vagina, external genitalia, and breasts and describe consequences from these effects.
 
11. Name and describe effects of aging on the four phases of female sexual response (p. 283), and describe the overall effects on sexual response from these individual effects.

12. Describe age-related trends in sexual activity, discuss reasons for these trends including specific examples, and name ways of reducing these trends.

13. Describe benign prostatic hypertrophy including what it is, its effects, and ways to minimize its effects.

14. Describe impotence including what it is, contributing factors, its effects, and ways to prevent or minimize this condition.

15. Describe prostate cancer including what it is, its effects, and ways to prevent or minimize this condition.

16. Describe breast cancer including what it is, its effects, and ways to prevent or minimize this condition.

17. Describe endometrial cancer including what it is, its effects, and ways to prevent or minimize this condition.

18. Describe ovarian cancer including what it is, its effects, and ways to prevent or minimize this condition.

19. Describe cervical cancer including what it is, its effects, and ways to prevent or minimize this condition.

20. Describe uterine fibroids including what they are, effects, and ways to prevent or minimize this condition.

21. Compare sexually transmitted diseases among young adults and older adults.

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