Chapter 12
 Urinary System - Learning Objectives
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 1. Name the seven main functions of the urinary system and explain how each function is important.

 2. Name and briefly describe the three functions of nephrons and explain the importance of modifying these functions.

 3. Describe the overall age changes in kidney structure and functioning and explain the effects and consequences of these changes on urinary system functioning.

 4. Explain why the incidence and severity of excursions beyond the kidneys' capabilities increase with age.

 5. Name four specific factors that increase demands on kidney functioning.

 6. Name four specific effects when the kidneys are not able to maintain homeostasis.

 7. Name three strategies that help balance kidney functioning with body needs.

 8. Describe the functions and age changes in the ureters.

 9. Describe the functioning of the urinary bladder and describe age changes in the bladder and the effects from these age changes.

10. Describe the functioning of the urethra and describe age changes in the urethra and the effects from these age changes.

11. Indicate that urinary incontinence is an abnormal condition.

12. Explain why the incidence and severity of urinary incontinence increases with age.

13. List and describe five types of urinary incontinence.

14. Name four specific factors that increase the incidence of urinary incontinence.

15. Describe biological and non-biological consequences from urinary incontinence.

16. Describe the general strategy for treating urinary incontinence.

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