Chapters 10
 Digestive System - Learning Objectives

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1. Name and explain the importance of the six main functions of the digestive system.

2. Name and briefly explain the digestive system processes involved in supplying cells with homeostatic levels of nutrients.

 3. Describe age changes (not abnormalities) in the following aspects of the oral region and describe consequences from these age changes: teeth, muscles

 4. Describe abnormal changes in the following aspects of the oral region and describe consequences from these changes: oral mucosa, teeth, muscles.

 5. List main ways for preventing or reducing abnormal changes in teeth.

6. For the esophagus describe two examples of abnormal changes and two effects from them.

 7. For the stomach, describe age changes in secretion and their effects and describe twoexamples of abnormal changes and two effects from them.

 8. For the small intestine, describe age changes in secretion, its effect on lactose digestion and consequences from lactose intolerance.

 9. For the large intestine, describe the effects of age changes on defecation including the incidence of constipation and fecal incontinence.

BE ABLE TO PERFORM __3__ OF THE FOLLOWING SIX OBJECTIVES (Objectives 10-15)

10. Name four factors that increase the incidence of constipation with aging and tell three effectsfrom constipation.

11. Name three factors that increase the incidence of diarrhea with aging and tell three  effectsfrom diarrhea.

12. Name three factors that increase the incidence of fecal incontinence with aging and tell threeeffects from fecal incontinence.

13. Name two factors that increase the incidence of diverticulosis and diverticulitis with aging and tell three effects from diverticulitis.

14. Name two factors that increase the incidence of hemorrhoids with aging and tell three effectsfrom hemorrhoids.

15. Name two factors that increase the incidence of colon cancer with aging and tell three effectsfrom colon cancer.

16. Describe the overall effects of aging on functioning of the liver, gall bladder, and pancreas (digestive functions).

17. For cirrhosis of the liver, name three common causes and five effects from cirrhosis including malnutrition, jaundice, and hemorrhoids, and two ways to reduce the risk of developing cirrhosis.

18. For gall stones, describe the two main ways they cause problems and three problems they cause.

19. Name two ways to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer.

20. Understand and explain that most age-related changes in the digestive system, including abnormalities and diseases, result not form age changes but from abuse, misuse, and disuse of the digestive system or from abnormalities or diseases in other body systems. Therefore, most age-related problems in the digestive system are preventable to some degree.

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© Copyright 1999 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
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