Chapter 1
 Introduction - Learning Objectives
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 1. Describe the present and anticipated population trends for the elderly and explain the reasons for these trends. (No specific values are needed.)

2. Discuss the significance of population trends of elders.

 3. Define or describe the terms developmental change, age change, aging, senescence, biological aging.

 4. Describe homeostasis and explain how it is important to the body.

 5. Describe how homeostasis is maintained, including how negative feedback systems function.

 6. Describe the overall effects of most age changes on maintaining homeostasis and explain why these effects occur.

 7. Describe the six types of aging (biological, chronological, cosmetic, social, psychological, and economic), and describe interactions among them.

 8. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of using chronological age and cosmetic aging as indicators or predictors of peoples' status and of the other types of aging.

 9. Describe the distinctions between aging and disease, and explain why many abnormal and disease conditions accompany aging.

10. Explain how abnormal and disease changes can be reduced and why doing so is important.

11. Name five main risk factors that promote abnormal and disease conditions that often accompany aging.

12. Briefly describe cross-sectional and longitudinal methods of studying aging and list three advantages and three disadvantages of each.

13. Briefly describe the time lag method of studying aging and list advantages and disadvantages.

14. Briefly describe advantages and disadvantages of using non-human and cell studies to learn about human aging.

15. Describe general patterns of biological aging (age of onset, trends over time, age of appearance, types of variability).

16. Describe heterogeneity as age increases and explain its significance.

17. Describe the meaning, usefulness and difficulty in determining a person's "biological age".

18. Describe maximum longevity, mean longevity, and life expectancy, and describe past, current, and future trends in these parameters.

19. Name two non-modifiable and four modifiable factors that influence mean longevity and explain their relationships to quality of life.

20. Explain concepts of quality of life and their importance.

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© Copyright 1999 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
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