Chapter 15
 Second Edition
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Akisaka M, Suzuki M, Inoko H: "Molecular genetic studies on DNA polymorphism of the HLA class II genes associated with human longevity." Tissue Antigens (1997) Nov;50(5):489-493.

Arvin AM:" Varicella-zoster virus: overview and clinical manifestations." Seminars in Dermatology (1996) Jun;15(2 Suppl 1):4-7.

Caruso C, Candore G, Cigna D, DiLorenzo G, Sireci G, Dieli F, Salerno A: "Cytokine production pathway in the elderly." Immunologic Research (1996) 15(1):84-90.

Cossarizza A, Ortolani C, Monti D, Franceschi C: "Cytometric analysis of immunosenescence." Cytometry (1997) Apr 1;27(4):297-313.

Doria G, Frasca D: "Genes, immunity, and senescence: looking for a link." Immunological Reviews (1997) Dec;160:159-170.

Effros RB: "Loss of CD28 expression on T lymphocytes: a marker of replicative senescence." Developmental and Comparative Immunology (1997) Nov;21(6):471-478.

Effros RB: "Replicative senescence in the immune system: impact of the Hayflick limit on T-cell function in the elderly." American Journal of Human Genetics (1998) May;62(5):1003-1007.

Ershler WB, Harman SM, Keller ET: "Immunologic aspects of osteoporosis." Developmental and Comparative Immunology (1997) Nov;21(6):487-499.

Horan MA, Ashcroft GS: "Ageing, defence mechanisms and the immune system." Age and Ageing (1997) Dec;26 Suppl 4:15-19.

LeMaoult J, Szabo P, Weksler ME: "Effect of age on humoral immunity, selection of the B-cell repertoire and B-cell development." Immunological Reviews (1997) Dec;160:115-126.

Mackall CL, Gress RE: "Thymic aging and T-cell regeneration." Immunological Reviews (1997) Dec;160:91-102.

Martin JT: "Development of an adjuvant to enhance the immune response to influenza vaccine in the elderly." Biologicals (1997) Jun;25(2):209-213.

McCarty MF: "Promotion of interleukin-2 activity as a strategy for 'rejuvenating' geriatric immune function." Medical Hypotheses (1997) Jan;48(1):47-54.

Moriguchi S: "The role of vitamin E in T-cell differentiation and the decrease of cellular immunity with aging." Biofactors (1998) 7(1-2):77-86.

Pawelec G, Adibzadeh M, Solana R, Beckman I: "The T cell in the ageing individual." Mechanisms of Ageing and Development (1997) Feb;93(1-3):35-45.

Schmucker DL, Heyworth MF, Owen RL, Daniels CK: "Impact of aging on gastrointestinal mucosal immunity." Digestive Diseases and Sciences (1996) Jun;41(6):1183-1193.

Shinkai S, Konishi M, Shephard RJ: "Aging, exercise, training, and the immune system." Exercise Immunology Review (1997) 3:68-95.

Sunderkotter C, Kalden H, Luger TA: "Aging and the skin immune system." Archives of Dermatology (1997) Oct;133(10):1256-1262.

Weng NP, Palmer LD, Levine BL, Lane HC, June CH, Hodes RJ: "Tales of tails: regulation of telomere length and telomerase activity during lymphocyte development, differentiation, activation, and aging." Immunological Reviews (1997) Dec;160:43-54.

Wick G, Grubeck-Loebenstein B: "Primary and secondary alterations of immune reactivity in the elderly: impact of dietary factors and disease." Immunological Reviews (1997) Dec;160:171-184.

Zheng B, Han S, Takahashi Y, Kelsoe G: "Immunosenescence and germinal center reaction." Immunological Reviews (1997) Dec;160:63-77.

First Edition

Abrams, William B., and Robert Berkow, The Merck Manual of Geriatrics, Merck Sharp and Dome Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey, 1990.

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Arking, Robert, Biology of Aging: Observations and Principles, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1991.

Brill, S., T. Kukulansky, E. Tal, L. Abel, Y. Polgin, C. Dassa, and A. Globerson, "Individual Changes in T Lymphocyte Parameters of Old Human Subjects", Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, Vol. 40, pp. 71-79, Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd., 1987.

Carola, Robert, John P. Harley, and Charles R. Noback, Human Anatomy and Physiology, McGraw- Hill Publishing Company, New York, 1990.

Carola, Robert, John P. Harley, and Charles R. Noback, Human Anatomy and Physiology, second edition, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York, 1992.

De Paoli, P., S. Battistin, and G. F. Santini, "Age-Related Changes in Human Lymphocyte Subsets: Progressive Reduction of the CD4 CD45R (Suppressor Inducer) Population", Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, Vol. 48, pp. 290-296, 1988.

Facchini, A., Erminia Mariani, Adriana Rita Mariani, S. Papa, M. Vitale, and F. A. Manzoli, "Increased Number of Circulating Leu 11+ (CD 16) Large Granular Lymphocytes and Decreased NK Activity During Human Aging", Clin. Exp. Immunol., Vol. 68, pp. 340-347, 1987.

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Gietzen, Dorothy W., Theodore A. Goodman, Philip G. Weiler, Kay Graf, David R. Fregreau, Joseph R. Magliozzi, Allen R. Doran, and Richard J. Maddock, "Beta Receptor Density in Human Lymphocyte Membranes: Changes with Aging?", Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 46, pp. B130-134, 1991.

Hazzard, William R., Reubin Andres, Edwin L. Bierman, and John P. Blass, Principles of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Information Services Company, New York, 1990.

Huang, Yon-Peng, Laurent Gauthey, Martine Michel, Myriam Loreto, Michel Paccaud, Jean-Claude Pechere, and Jean-Pierre Michel, "The Relationship Between Influenza Vaccine-Induced Specific Antibody Responses and Vaccine-Induced Nonspecific Autoantibody Responses in Healthy Older Women", Journal of Gerontology, Vol 47, pp. M50-55, 1992.

Jankovic, B. D., P. Korolija, K. Isalovic, L. J. Popeskovic, M. C. Pesic, J. Horvat, D. Jeremic, and V. Vajs, "Immunorestorative Effects in Elderly Humans of Lipid and Protein Fractions from the Calf Thymus: A Double Blind Study", Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., Vol 521, pp. 247-259, 1988.

Kenney, Richard A., Physiology of Aging, Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1982.

Kent, Barbara, and Robert N. Butler, Human Aging Research: Concepts and Techniques, in Aging Series Volume 34, Raven Press, N.Y., 1988.

Krishnaraj, Rajabather, and Gerald Blanford, "Age-Associated Alterations in Human Natural Killer Cells: 1. Increased Activity as per Conventional and Kinetic Analysis", Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, Vol. 45, pp. 268-285, 1987.

Krishnaraj, Rajabather, and Gerald Blanford, "Age-Associated Alterations in Human Natural Killer Cells: 2. Increased Frequency of Selective NK Subsets", Cellular Immunology, Vol 114, pp. 137-148, 1988.

Maddox, George L., and E. W. Busse, Aging: The Universal Human Experience, Springer Publishing Company, New York, 1987.

Marieb, Elaine N., Human Anatomy and Physiology, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Redwood City, California, 1989.

Marieb, Elaine N., Human Anatomy and Physiology, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Redwood City, California, 1992.

McCance, Kathryn L., and Sue E. Huether, Pathophysiology: The Biological Basis for Disease in Adults and Children, The C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1990.

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Moskowitz, Roland W., and Marie R. Haug, Arthritis and the Elderly, Springer Publishing Co., New York, 1986.

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Nagel, James E., Kyungeun Han, Patricia J. Coon, William H. Adler, and Bradley S. Bender, "Age Differences in Phagocytosis by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Measured by Flow Cytometry", Journal of Leukocyte Biology, Vol. 39, pp. 399-407, 1986.

Nagel, J. E., and W. H. Adler, "Effects of Aging on Immune Function and Reserve Capacity", pp. 195-207, in Burger, E. J., R. G. Tardiff, J. A. and Bellanti, eds., Advances in Modern Environmental Technology, Vol. XIII- Environmental Chemical Exposures and Immune System Integrity, Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1987.

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Price, Sylvia, A., and Lorraine M. Wilson, Pathophysiology: Clinical Concepts of Disease Processes, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1986.

Price, Sylvia, A., and Lorraine M. Wilson, Pathophysiology: Clinical Concepts of Disease Processes, 4th edition, Mosby-Year Book, Inc., St. Louis, 1992.

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Rennie, John, "The Body Against Itself", Scientific American, Vol. 261, pp. 106-115, Dec. 1990.

Richey, Monica L., Hobart K. Richey, and Neil A. Fenske, "Aging- Related Skin Changes: Development and Clinical Meaning", Geriatrics, Vol. 43(Apr), pp. 49-64, 1988.

Rytel, Michael W., "Effect of Age on Viral Infections: Possible Role of Interferon", Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 35, pp. 1092-1099, 1987.

Schneider, Edward L., and John W. Rowe, eds., Handbook of the Biology of Aging, third edition, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, 1990.

Shock, Nathan W., Richard C. Greulich, Reubin Andres, David Arenberg, Paul T. Costa, Edward G. Lakatta, and Jordan D. Tobin, Normal Human Aging: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH Publication No. 84- 2450, 1984.

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Van De Graff, Kent. M., and Stuart Ira Fox, Concepts of Human Anatomy and Physiology, third edition, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa, 1992.

Wardlaw, Gordon M., and Paul M. Insel, Perspectives in Nutrition, Times Mirror / Mosby College Publishing, St. Louis, 1990.

Watson, Ronald R., ed., CRC Handbook of Nutrition in the Aged, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, 1985.

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