Chapter 9
 Second Edition
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Barzel US, Massey LK: "Excess dietary protein can adversely affect bone." Journal of Nutrition (1998) Jun;128(6):1051-1053.

Battmann A, Battmann A, Jundt G, Schulz A: "Endosteal human bone cells (EBC) show age-related activity in vitro." Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes (1997) 105(2):98-102.

Bikle DD: "Biochemical markers in the assessment of bone disease." American Journal of Medicine (1997) Nov;103(5):427-436.

Bonjour JP, Schurch MA, Rizzoli R: "Proteins and bone health." Pathologie Biologie (1997) Jan;45(1):57-59.

Boonen S, Aerssens J, Dequeker J: "Age-related endocrine deficiencies and fractures of the proximal femur. II implications of vitamin D deficiency in the elderly." Journal of Endocrinology (1996) Apr;149(1):13-17.

Boonen S, Aerssens J, Dequeker J, Nicholson P, Cheng X, Lowet G, Verbeke G, Bouillon R: "Age-associated decline in human femoral neck cortical and trabecular content of insulin-like growth factor I: potential implications for age-related (type II)osteoporotic fracture occurrence." Calcified Tissue International (1997) Sep;61(3):173-178.

Boonen S, Aerssens J, Dequeker J: "Age-related endocrine deficiencies and fractures of the proximal femur. I implications of growth hormone deficiency in the elderly." Journal of Endocrinology (1996) Apr;149(1):7-12.

Boonen S, Broos P, Dequeker J: "Age-related factors in the pathogenesis of senile (Type II) femoral neck fractures." American Journal of Orthopedics (1996) Mar;25(3):198-204.

Bowman MA, Spangler JG: "Osteoporosis in women." Primary Care; Clinics in Office Practice (1997) Mar;24(1):27-36.

Buckwalter JA, Mankin HJ: "Articular cartilage: degeneration and osteoarthritis, repair, regeneration, and transplantation." Instructional Course Lectures (1998) 47:487-504.

Buckwalter JA: "Aging and degeneration of the human intervertebral disc." Spine (1995) Jun 1;20(11):1307-1314.

Burr DB: "Muscle strength, bone mass, and age-related bone loss." Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (1997) Oct;12(10):1547-1551.

Chigira M: "Mechanical optimization of bone." Medical Hypotheses (1996) Apr;46(4):327-330.

Ershler WB, Harman SM, Keller ET: "Immunologic aspects of osteoporosis." Developmental and Comparative Immunology (1997) Nov;21(6):487-499.

Frost HM: "On our age-related bone loss: insights from a new paradigm." Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (1997) Oct;12(10):1539-1546.

Gambert SR, Schultz BM, Hamdy RC: "Osteoporosis. Clinical features, prevention, and treatment." Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America (1995) Jun;24(2):317-371.

Garnero P, Delmas PD: "Osteoporosis." Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America (1997) Dec;26(4):913-936.

Gloth FM 3rd, Tobin JD: "Vitamin D deficiency in older people." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (1995) Jul;43(7):822-828.

Hamerman D: "Aging and the musculoskeletal system." Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (1997) Oct;56(10):578-585.

Hurley DL, Khosla S: "Update on primary osteoporosis." Mayo Clinic Proceedings (1997) Oct;72(10):943-949.

Johnell O: "The socioeconomic burden of fractures: today and in the 21st century." American Journal of Medicine (1997) Aug 18;103(2A):20S-25S.

Karlsson MK, Johnell O, Obrant KJ: "Is bone mineral density advantage maintained long-term in previous weight lifters?." Calcified Tissue International (1995) Nov;57(5):325-328.

Langton CM, Langton DK: "Male and female normative data for ultrasound measurement of the calcaneus within the UK adult population." British Journal of Radiology (1997) Jun;70(834):580-585.

Lee YL, Yip KM: "The osteoporotic spine." Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (1996) Feb;323:91-97.

Lips P: "Epidemiology and predictors of fractures associated with osteoporosis." American Journal of Medicine (1997) Aug 18;103(2A):3S-8S.

Looker AC, Orwoll ES, Johnston CC Jr, Lindsay RL, Wahner HW, Dunn WL, Calvo MS, Harris TB, Heyse SP: "Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older U.S. adults from NHANES III." Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (1997) Nov;12(11):1761-1768.

Lyons AR : "Clinical outcomes and treatment of hip fractures." Am J Med. (1997) Aug 18;103(2A) 51S-63S.

May H, Murphy S, Khaw KT: "Age-associated bone loss in men and women and its relationship to weight." Age and Ageing (1994);May;23(3):235-240.

Melton LJ 3rd, Thamer M, Ray NF, Chan JK, Chesnut CH 3rd, Einhorn TA, Johnston CC, Raisz LG, Silverman SL, Siris ES: "Fractures attributable to osteoporosis: report from the National Osteoporosis Foundation." Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (1997) Jan;12(1):16-23.

Murray TM: "Mechanisms of bone loss." Journal of Rheumatology. Supplement (1996) Aug;45:6-10.

Oddis CV: "New perspectives on osteoarthritis." American Journal of Medicine (1996) Feb 26;100(2A):10S-15S.

Peterlik M: "Aging, neuroendocrine function, and osteoporosis." Experimental Gerontology (1997) Jul;32(4-5):577-586.

Ross PD : "Clinical consequences of vertebral fractures." Am J Med. (1997) Aug 18;103(2A) 30S-42S.

Rubin CD: "Southwestern Internal Medicine Conference: prevention of hip fractures in the elderly." American Journal of the Medical Sciences (1995) Aug;310(2):77-85.

Shiflett S, Cooke CE: "Osteoporosis: a focus on treatment." Maryland Medical Journal (1997) Jul;46(6):303-307.

Tamayo-Orozco J, Arzac-Palumbo P, Peon-Vidales H, Mota-Bolfeta R, Fuentes F : "Vertebral fractures associated with osteoporosis patient management." Am J Med. (1997) Aug 18;103(2A) 44S-48S.

Tohno S, Tohno Y, Minami T, Ichii M, Okazaki Y, Utsumi M, Nishiwaki F, Yamada M: "Difference of mineral contents in human intervertebral disks and its age-related change." Biological Trace Element Research (1996) May;52(2):117-124.

Tohno Y, Utsumi M, Tohno S, Minami T, Okazaki Y, Moriwake Y, Nishiwaki F, Yamada M, Fujii T, Takakura Y: "Age-dependent changes of mineral contents in men and women's calcanei." Biological Trace Element Research (1997) Oct;60(1-2):81-90.

Wolfson L, Judge J, Whipple R, King M: "Strength is a major factor in balance, gait, and the occurrence of falls." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci (1995) Nov;50 Spec No:64-7.

First Edition

Andrew, Warren, The Anatomy of Aging in Man and Animals, Grune and Stratton, New York 1971.

Avioli, Louis V., ed., The Osteoporotic Syndrome: Detection, Prevention, and Treatment, 2nd edition, Grune and Stratton, Inc., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, New York, 1987.

Brandt, Lawrence J., Gastrointestinal Disorders of the Elderly, Raven Press, New York, 1984.

Campbell, A. John, Michael K. Borrie, and Geroge F. Spears, "Risk Factors for Falls in a Community-Based Prospective Study of People 70 pp. M112-117, 1989.

Chernoff, Ronni, and David A. Lipschitz, Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in the Eldery, Aging Series, Vol. 35, Raven Press, New York, 1988.

Downs, Robert W., personal communication at Williamsburg, Nov. 1989.

Escher, Jeffrey E., and Steven Gambert,"Metabolic Bone Disease", Age, Vol. 10, pp. 62-69, 1987.

Evered, David, amd Julie Whelan, eds., Research and the Aging Population, Ciba Foundation, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, 1988.

Finch, Caleb E., and Leonard Hayflick, eds., Handbook of the Biology of Aging, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1977.

Fox, Kathleen M., Jordan D. Tobin, and Chris C. Plato, "Longitudinal Study of Bone Loss in the Second Metacarpal", in Calcified Tissue International, Springer-Verlag New York Inc., New York, Vol. 39, pp. 218-225, 1986.

Joseph, James A., ed., Central Determinants of Age-Related Declines in Motor Function, Vol. 15 of Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1988.

Kent, Barbara, and Robert N. Butler, Human Aging Research: Concepts and Techniques, in Aging Series Volume 34, Raven Press, N.Y., 1988.

Lindsay, Robert, "Managing Osteoporosis: Current Trends, Future Possibilities", Geriatrics, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 35-40, March 1987.

Lyles, Kenneth W., personal communication at Williamsburg, Nov. 1989.
Maddox, George L., and E. W. Busse, Aging: The Universal Human Experience, Springer Publishing Company, New York, 1987.

Moskowitz, Roland W., and Marie R. Haug, Arthritis and the Elderly, Springer Publeshing Co., New York, 1986.

Plato, C. C., "The Effects of Aging on Bioanthropological Variables: Changes in Bone Mineral Density with Increasing Age", Coll. Antropol., Vol. 11, pp. 59-71, 1987.

Schaadt, Ole, and Hans Bohr, "Different Trends of Age-Related Diminution of Bone Mineral Content in the Lumbar Spine, Femoral Neck, and Femoral Shaft in Women", Calcified Tissue International, Vol. 42, pp. 71-76, 1988.

Schein, Jeff, and Bill Dougal, Boning Up on Osteoporosis: A Guide to Prevention and Treatment, National Osteoporosis Foundation, Washington, D.C., 1989.

Shephard, Roy J., Physical Activity and Aging, Yearbook Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1978.

Shock, Nathan W., Richard C. Greulich, Reubin Andres, David Arenberg, Paul T. Costa, Edward G. Lakatta and Jordan D. Tobin, Normal Human Aging: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH Publication No. 84- 2450, 1984.

Smith, Everett L., and Robert C. Serfass, eds., Exercise and Aging: The Scientific Basis, Enslow Publishers, Hillside, N. J., 1980.

Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth, "Influences of Age and Training on Bone and Muscle Tissue in Humans and Mice", pp. 133-142, in Bergener, M., Ermini M., Stahelin and H. B., Dimensions in Aging,Academic Press, N.Y., 1986.

Timiras, Paola S., ed., Physiological Basis of Geriatrics, MacMillan Publ. Co., N. Y., 1988.

Twomey, L. T., and J. R. Taylor, "Age Changes in Lumbar Vertebrae and Intervertebral Discs", Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, No. 224, pp. 97-107. 1987.

Watson, Ronald R., ed., CRC Handbook of Nutrition in the Aged, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, 1985.

Whitbourne, Susan Krauss, The Aging Body: Physiological Changes and Psychological Consequences, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985.

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