Chapter 4
 Second Edition
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Ajmani RS, Rifkind JM: "Hemorheological changes during human aging." Gerontology (1998) 44(2):111-120.

Aviv A, Aviv H: "Reflections on telomeres, growth, aging, and essential hypertension." Hypertension (1997) May;29(5):1067-1072.

Beck J, Garcia R, Heiss G, Vokonas PS, Offenbacher S: "Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease." Journal of Periodontology (1996) Oct;67(10 Suppl):1123-1137.

Bizbiz L, Alperovitch A, Robert L: "Aging of the vascular wall: serum concentration of elastin peptides and elastase inhibitors in relation to cardiovascular risk factors. The EVA study." Atherosclerosis (1997) May;131(1):73-78.

Bonithon-Kopp C, Coudray C, Berr C, Touboul PJ, Feve JM, Favier A, Ducimetiere P: "Combined effects of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status on carotid atherosclerosis in a population aged 59-71: The EVA Study. Etude sur le Vieillisement Arteriel." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1997) Jan;65(1):121-127.

Chapleau MW, Cunningham JT, Sullivan MJ, Wachtel RE, Abboud FM: "Structural versus functional modulation of the arterial baroreflex." Hypertension (1995) Aug;26(2):341-347.

Glasser SP, Selwyn AP, Ganz P: "Atherosclerosis: risk factors and the vascular endothelium." American Heart Journal (1996) Feb;131(2):379-384.

Janssen JA, Stolk RP, Pols HA, Grobbee DE, Lamberts SW: "Serum total IGF-I, free IGF-I, and IGFB-1 levels in an elderly population: relation to cardiovascular risk factors and disease." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology (1998) Feb;18(2):277-282.

Jensen-Urstad K, Storck N, Bouvier F, Ericson M, Lindblad LE, Jensen-Urstad M: "Heart rate variability in healthy subjects is related to age and gender." Acta Physiologica Scandinavica (1997) Jul;160(3):235-241.

Lakatta EG: "Cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms in advanced age." Physiol Rev (1993); 73:413-467.

Laurent S: "Arterial wall hypertrophy and stiffness in essential hypertensive patients." Hypertension (1995) Aug;26(2):355-362.

Laurent S, Lacolley P, Girerd X, Boutouyrie P, Bezie Y, Safar M: "Arterial stiffening: opposing effects of age- and hypertension-associated structural changes." Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology (1996) Jul;74(7):842-849.

Low PA, Denq JC, Opfer-Gehrking TL, Dyck PJ, O'Brien PC, Slezak JM: "Effect of age and gender on sudomotor and cardiovagal function and blood pressure response to tilt in normal subjects." Muscle and Nerve (1997) Dec;20(12):1561-1568.

Martyn CN, Greenwald SE: "Impaired synthesis of elastin in walls of aorta and large conduit arteries during early development as an initiating event in pathogenesis of systemic hypertension." Lancet (1997) Sep 27;350(9082):953-955.

Miquel J, Ramirez-Bosca A, Soler A, Diez A, Carrion-Gutierrez MA, Diaz-Alperi J, Quintanilla-Ripoll E, Bernd A, Quintanilla-Almagro E: "Increase with age of serum lipid peroxides: implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis." Mechanisms of Ageing and Development (1998) Jan 12;100(1):17-24.

Mosinger BJ: "Human low-density lipoproteins: oxidative modification and its relation to age, gender, menopausal status and cholesterol concentrations." Europena Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry (1997) Mar;35(3):207-214.

Mundal R, Kjeldsen SE, Sandvik L, Erikssen G, Thaulow E, Erikssen J: "Predictors of 7-year changes in exercise blood pressure: effects of smoking, physical fitness and pulmonary function." Journal of Hypertension (1997) Mar;15(3):245-249.

Ooyama T, Sakamato H: "Elastase in the prevention of arterial aging and the treatment of atherosclerosis." Ciba Foundation Symposium (1995) 192:307-317.

Rich MW: "Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology of congestive heart failure in older adults." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (1997) Aug;45(8):968-974.

Robert L: "Aging of the vascular wall and atherogenesis: role of the elastin-laminin receptor." Atherosclerosis (1996) Jun;123(1-2):169-179.

Robert L, Jacob MP, Fulop T: "Elastin in blood vessels." Ciba Foundation Symposium (1995) 192:286-299.

Schaefer EJ, Lichtenstein AH, Lamon-Fava S, McNamara JR, Ordovas JM: "Lipoproteins, nutrition, aging, and atherosclerosis." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (1995) Mar;61(3 Suppl):726S-740S.

Smulyan H, Safar ME: "Systolic blood pressure revisited." Journal of American College of Cardiology (1997) Jun;29(7):1407-1413.

Susic D: "Hypertension, aging, and atherosclerosis: the endothelial interface." Medical Clinics of North America (1997) Sep;81(5):1231-1240.

Swynghedauw B, Besse S, Assayag P, Carre F, Chevalier B, Charlemagne D, Delcayre C, Hardouin S, Heymes C, Moalic JM: "Molecular and cellular biology of the senescent hypertrophied and failing heart." American Journal of Cardiology (1995) Nov 2;76(13):2D-7D.

Tailleux A, Fruchart JC: "HDL heterogeneity and atherosclerosis." Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Science (1996) Jun;33(3):163-201.

First Edition

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___________, "Now Its Iron", Time, Vol 140, p. 18, Sept. 21, 1992.

Andres, Reubin, Edwin Bierman, and William R. Hazzard, eds., Principles of Geriatric Medicine, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. 1985.

Andrew, Warren, The Anatomy of Aging in Man and Animals, Grune and Stratton, New York 1971.

Bittles, A.H., and K. J. Collins, The Biology of Human Ageing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986.

Blumenthal, James A., Charles F. Emery, David J. Madden, Linda K. George, R. Edward Coleman, Margaret W. Riddle, Daphne C. McKee, John Reasoner, and R. Sanders Williams, "Cardiovascular and Behavioral Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training in Healthy Older Men and Women", Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 44, no. 5, pp. M147-157, 1989.

Busse, Ewald W., and George L. Maddox, The Duke Longitudinal Studies of Normal Aging: 1955-1980, Springer Publishing Co., N. Y., 1985.

Chernoff, Ronni, and David A. Lipschitz, Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in the Elderly, Aging Series, Vol. 35, Raven Press, New York, 1988.

Corberand, J., P. Laharrague, and G. Fillola, "Blood Cell Parameters Do Not Change during Physiological Human Ageing", Gerontology, Vol. 33, pp. 72-76, 1987.

Darr, Kevin C., David R. Bassett, Barbara J. Morgan, and D. Paul Thomas, "Effects of Age and Training Status on Heart Rate Recovery After Peak Exercise", American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 254(2) pp. H340-H343, 1988.

Davis, Bernard B., and W. Gibson Wood, eds., Homeostatic Functions and Aging, Aging Series, Vol. 30, Raven Press, N.Y., 1985.

Finch, Caleb E., and Edward L. Schneider, eds., Handbook of the Biology of Aging, 2nd edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., N.Y., 1985.

Finch, Caleb E., and Leonard Hayflick, eds., Handbook of the Biology of Aging, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1977.

Findlay, Steven, Doug Podolsky, and Joanne Silberner, "Iron and Your Heart", U.S. News and World Report, Vol. 113, pp. 63-68, Sept. 21, 1992.

Fleg, Jerome L., "Alterations in Cardiovascular Structure and Function with Advancing Age", The American Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 57, pp. 33C-44C, 1986

Fleg, Jerome L., "The Aging Heart", pp. 253-273, in Wenger, N. K., C. D. Furberg, and E. Pitt, eds., Coronary Heart Disease in the Elderly, Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc., 1986.

Gerstenblith, Gary, Dale G. Renlund, and Edward G. Lakatta, "Cardiovascular Response to Exercise in Younger and Older Men", Federation Proc., Vol. 46, pp. 1834-1839, 1987.

Goldstein, Iris B., and Dave Shapiro, "Cardiovascular Response During Postural Change in the Elderly", Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 45, no. 1, pp. M20-25, 1990.

Kawasaki, Takeshi, Shigetake Sasayama, Shin-Ichi Yagi, Tetsuya Asakawa, and Tadakazu Hirai, "Non-Invasive Assessment of the Age Related Changes in Stiffness of Major Branches of the Human Arteries", Cardiovascular Research, Vol. 21, pp. 678-687, 1987.

Kenney, Richard A., Physiology of Aging, Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1982.

Kent, Barbara, and Robert N. Butler, Human Aging Research: Concepts and Techniques, in Aging Series, Volume 34, Raven Press, N.Y., 1988.

Lakatta, Edward G., Jere H. Mitchell, Ariela Pomerance, and George G. Rowe, "Characteristics of Specific Cardiovascular Disorders in the Elderly", Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 10, pp. 42A-47A, 1987.

Lakatta, Edward G., "Cardiovascular Reserve and Aging", in Horan, M. J., G. M. Steinberg, J. B. Dunbar and E.C. Hadley, eds., NIH Blood Pressure Regulation and Aging, Biomedical Information, New York, pp. 51-78, 1986.

Lakatta, Edward G., "The Aging Heart: Myths and Realities", pp. 179-193, in Elias, J. W., and P. H. Marshall, eds., Cardiovascular Disease and Behavior, Hemisphere, Washington, 1987.

Lakatta, Edward G., "Why Cardiovascular Function May Decline with Age", Geriatrics, Vol. 42, pp. 84-95, 1987.

Maddox, George L., and E.W. Busse, Aging: The Universal Human Experience, Springer Publishing Company, New York, 1987.

Montamat, Stephen C., and Albert O. Davies, "Physiological Response to Isoproterenol and Coupling of Bete-Adrenergic Receptors in Young and Elderly Human Subjects", Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 44, no. 3, pp. M100-105, 1989.

Muniain, M. A., C. Rodrigues, F. Pozueto, A. Romero, R. Matta, J. Perez-Venegas, D. Rodriguez, and M. Garrido, "Chemotaxis in the Elderly: Modifications After the Intake of Ascorbic Acid and Levamisole", Age, Vol 11, pp. 88-92, 1988.

Nagel, James E., and Jacques J. Proust, "Age-Related Changes in Humoral Immunity, Complement, and Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Function", Review of Biological Research in Aging, Vol. 3, pp. 147- 159, 1987.

Nagel, James E., Kyungeun Han, Patricia J. Coon, William H. Adler, and Bradley S. Bender, "Age Differences in Phagocytosis by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Measured by Flow Cytometry", Journal of Leukocyte Biology, Vol. 39, pp. 399-407, 1986.

Powers, Douglas C., James E. Nagel, John Hoh, and William H. Adler, "Immune Function in the Elderly", in, Postgraduate Medicine Immune Function, Vol. 81, pp. 355-359, 1987.

Price, Sylvia, A., and Lorraine M. Wilson, Pathophysiology: Clinical Concepts of Disease Processes, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1986.

Rosenthal, Julian, "Aging and the Cardiovascular System", Gerontology, Vol. 33: suppl. 1, pp. 3-8, 1987.

Rowe, John W., "Clinical Consequences of Age-Related Impairments in Vascular Compliance", American Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 60, pp. 68G-71G, 1987.

Shephard, Roy J., Physical Activity and Aging, Yearbook Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1978.

Shock, Nathan W., Richard C. Greulich, Reubin Andres, David Arenberg, Paul T. Costa, Edward G. Lakatta, and Jordan D. Tobin, Normal Human Aging: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH Publication No. 84- 2450, 1984.

Smith, Everett L., and Robert C. Serfass, eds., Exercise and Aging: The Scientific Basis, Enslow Publishers, Hillside, N. J., 1980.

Tamai, Toshitaka, Tsuguhiko Nakai, Hirotada Takai, Ryuichi Fujiwara, Susumu Miyabo, Mitsuru Higuchi, and Shuhei Kobayashi, "The Effects of Physical Exercise on Plasma Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein Metabolism in Elderly Men", Journal of Gerontology, Vol 43, no. 4, pp. M75-79, 1988.

Timiras, Paola S., ed., Physiological Basis of Geriatrics, MacMillan Publ. Co., N. Y., 1988.

Vericel, E., M. Croset, P. Sedivy, Ph. Courpron, M. Dechavanne, and M. Lagarde, "Platelets and Aging; I-Aggregation, Arachidonate Metabolism and Antioxidant Status", Thrombosis Research, Vol. 49, pp. 331-342, 1988.

Vlassara, Helen, "Peripheral Neuropathy and Aging", AGE, Vol. 11, No.2., pp. 74-78, 1988.

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Whitbourne, Susan Krauss, The Aging Body: Physiological Changes and Psychological Consequences, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985.

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