Chapter 2
 Second Edition
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Akisaka M, Suzuki M, Inoko H: "Molecular genetic studies on DNA polymorphism of the HLA class II genes associated with human longevity." Tissue Antigens (1997) Nov;50(5):489-493.

Allsopp RC: "Models of initiation of replicative senescence by loss of telomeric DNA." Experimental Gerontology (1996) Jan;31(1-2):235-243.

Beckman KB, Ames BN: "The free radical theory of aging matures." Physiol Rev (1998) Apr;78(2):547-581.

Bernier L, Wang E: "A prospective view on phosphatases and replicative senescence." Experimental Gerontology (1996) Jan;31(1-2):13-19.

Bryan TM, Reddel RR: "Telomere dynamics and telomerase activity in in vitro immortalised human cells." Eur J Cancer (1997) Apr;33(5):767-773.

Campisi J, Dimri GP, Nehlin JO, Testori A, Yoshimoto K: "Coming of age in culture." Experimental Gerontology (1996) Jan;31(1-2):7-12.

Carlson JC, Riley JC: "A consideration of some notable aging theories." Experimental Gerontology (1998) Jan;33(1-2):127-134.

Charlesworth B, Partridge L: "Ageing: levelling of the grim reaper." Current Biology (1997) Jul 1;7(7):R440-R442.

Cristofalo VJ, Pignolo RJ: "Molecular markers of senescence in fibroblast-like cultures." Experimental Gerontology (1996) Jan;31(1-2):111-123.

Dahse R, Fiedler W, Ernst G: "Telomeres and telomerase: biological and clinical importance." Clinical Chemistry (1997) May;43(5):708-714.

de Grey AD: "A proposed refinement of the mitochondrial free radical theory of aging." Bioessays (1997) Feb;19(2):161-166.

Dean RT, Fu S, Stocker R, Davies MJ: "Biochemistry and pathology of radical-mediated protein oxidation." Biochem J (1997) May 15;324( Pt 1):1-18.

Diplock AT: "Will the 'good fairies' please prove to us that vitamin E lessens human degenerative disease?." Free Radic Res (1997) Nov;27(5):511-532.

Doria G, Frasca D: "Genes, immunity, and senescence: looking for a link." Immunological Reviews (1997) Dec;160:159-170.

Effros RB: "Replicative senescence in the immune system: impact of the Hayflick limit on T-cell function in the elderly." American Journal of Human Genetics (1998) May;62(5):1003-1007.

Finch CE, Tanzi RE: "Genetics of aging." Science (1997) Oct 17;278(5337):407-411.

Harman D: "Extending functional life span." Experimental Gerontology (1998) Jan;33(1-2):95-112.

Hart RW, Turturro A: "Evolution and dietary restriction." Experimental Gerontology (1998) Jan;33(1-2):53-60.

Holt SE, Wright WE, Shay JW: "Multiple pathways for the regulation of telomerase activity." Eur J Cancer (1997) Apr;33(5):761-766.

Johnson TE: "Genetic influences on aging." Experimental Gerontology (1997) Jan;32(1-2):11-22.

Kanungo MS, Gupta S, Upadhyay R: "Molecular biology of ageing." Indian Journal of Medical Research (1997) Oct;106:413-422.

Kirkwood TB: "Human senescence." Bioessays (1996) Dec;18(12):1009-1016.

Kirkwood TB : "The origins of human ageing." Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. (1997) Dec 29;352(1363) 1765-72.

Kirkwood TB, Kowald A: "Network theory of aging." Experimental Gerontology (1997) Jul;32(4-5):395-399.

Kirkwood TB, Ritter MA: "The interface between ageing and health in man." Age and Ageing (1997) Dec;26 Suppl 4:9-14.

Laval J: "Role of DNA repair enzymes in the cellular resistance to oxidative stress." Pathologie Biologie (1996) Jan;44(1):14-24.

Lee CM, Weindruch R, Aiken JM: "Age-associated alterations of the mitochondrial genome." Free Radic Biol Med (1997) 22(7) 1259-1269.

Liu AY, Lee YK, Manalo D, Huang LE: "Attenuated heat shock transcriptional response in aging: molecular mechanism and implication in the biology of aging." EXS (1996) 77:393-408.

Macieira-Coelho A: "Genetics of ageing." Pathologie Biologie (1997) Jun;45(6):500-505.

Macieira-Coelho A: "The implications of the 'Hayflick limit' for aging of the organism have been misunderstood by many gerontologists." Gerontology (1995) 41(2):94-97.

Macieira-Coelho A: "The last mitoses of the human fibroblast proliferative life span, physiopathologic implications." Mechanisms of Ageing and Development (1995) Aug 8;82(2-3):91-104.

Martin GM: "Genetic modulation of the senescent phenotype of Homo sapiens." Experimental Gerontology (1996) Jan;31(1-2):49-59.

Martin GM: "The genetics of aging." Hosp Pract (Off Ed) (1997) Feb 15;32(2):47-50.

Martin GM, Austad SN, Johnson TE: "Genetic analysis of ageing: role of oxidative damage and environmental stresses." Genet (1996) May;13(1):25-34.

Masoro EJ: "Possible mechanisms underlying the antiaging actions of caloric restriction." Toxicologic Pathology (1996) Nov;24(6):738-741.

Masoro EJ, Austad SN: "The Evolution of the Antiaging Action of Dietary Restriction: A Hypothesis." J. Gerontol Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. (1996) 51(6):B387-B391.

McClearn GE: "Biogerontologic theories." Experimental Gerontology (1997) Jan;32(1-2):3-10.

McClearn GE: "Biomarkers of age and aging." Experimental Gerontology (1997) Jan;32(1-2):87-94.

Miquel J: "An update on the oxygen stress-mitochondrial mutation theory of aging: genetic and evolutionary implications." Experimental Gerontology (1998) Jan;33(1-2):113-126.

Morin GB: "Telomere control of replicative lifespan." Experimental Gerontology (1997) Jul;32(4-5):375-382.

Mountz JD, Wu J, Zhou T, Hsu HC: "Cell death and longevity: implications of Fas-mediated apoptosis in T-cell senescence." Immunological Reviews (1997) Dec;160:19-30.

Munch G, Thome J, Foley P, Schinzel R, Riederer P: "Advanced glycation end products in ageing and Alzheimer's disease." Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews (1997) Feb;23(1-2):134-143.

Narayanan S: "Laboratory markers as an index of aging." Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science (1996) Jan;26(1):50-59.

Nikitin AG, Shmookler Reis RJ: "Role of transposable elements in age-related genomic instability." Genet Res (1997) Jun;69(3):183-195.

Nohl H, Staniek K, Gille L: "Imbalance of oxygen activation and energy metabolism as a consequence or mediator of aging." Experimental Gerontology (1997) Jul;32(4-5):485-500.

Oshimura M, Barrett JC: "Multiple pathways to cellular senescence: role of telomerase repressors." Eur J Cancer (1997) Apr;33(5):710-715.

Ozawa T: "Genetic and functional changes in mitochondria associated with aging." Physiol Rev (1997) Apr;77(2):425-464.

Papa S, Skulachev VP: "Reactive oxygen species, mitochondria, apoptosis and aging." Mol Cell Biochem (1997) Sep;174(1-2):305-319.

Parr T: "Insulin exposure and aging theory." Gerontology (1997) 43(3):182-200.

Parr T: "Insulin exposure controls the rate of mammalian aging." Mechanisms of Ageing and Development (1996) Jul 5;88(1-2):75-82.

Parsons PA: "The limit to human longevity: an approach through a stress theory of ageing." Mechanisms of Ageing and Development (1996) Jun 25;87(3):211-218.

Paul RG, Bailey AJ: "Glycation of collagen: the basis of its central role in the late complications of ageing and diabetes." Int J Biochem Cell Biol (1996) Dec;28(12):1297-1310.

Perez-Campo R, Lopez-Torres M, Cadenas S, Rojas C, Barja G: "The rate of free radical production as a determinant of the rate of aging: evidence from the comparative approach." Journal of Comparative Physiology [B] (1998) Apr;168(3):149-158.

Rattan SI: "Synthesis, modifications, and turnover of proteins during aging." Experimental Gerontology (1996) Jan;31(1-2):33-47.

Reiser KM: "Nonenzymatic glycation of collagen in aging and diabetes." Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine (1998) May;218(1):23-37.

Reiter RJ: "Functional diversity of the pineal hormone melatonin: its role as an antioxidant." Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes (1996) 104:10-16.

Reiter RJ: "Functional pleiotropy of the neurohormone melatonin: antioxidant protection and neuroendocrine regulation." Front Neuroendocrinol (1995) Oct;16(4) 383-415.

Reiter RJ: "Oxidative processes and antioxidative defense mechanisms." The FASEB Journal (1995) 9:526-533.

Reiter RJ: "Oxygen detoxification processes during aging: the functional importance of melatonin." Aging Clin. Exp. Res. (1995) 7:340-351.

Reiter RJ : "Oxygen radical detoxification processes during aging: the functional importance of melatonin." Aging (Milano) (1995) Oct;7(5) 340-351.

Reiter RJ : "The pineal gland and melatonin in relation to aging: a summary of the theories and of the data." Exp. Gerontol. (1995) 30:199-212.

Reiter RJ, Carneiro RC, Oh CS: "Melatonin in relation to cellular antioxidative defense mechanisms." Horm Metab Res (1997) Aug;29(8) 363-372.

Reiter RJ, Guerrero JM, Escames G, Pappolla MA, Acuna-Castroviejo D: "Prophylactic actions of melatonin in oxidative neurotoxicity." Ann N Y Acad Sci (1997) Oct 15;825 70-78.

Reiter RJ, Pablos MI, Agapito TT, Guerrero JM: "Melatonin in the context of the free radical theory of aging." Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1996) 786:362-378.

Richter C: "Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species regulate mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis and respiration." Biosci Rep (1997) Feb;17(1):53-66.

Rubin H: "Cell aging in vivo and in vitro." Mechanisms of Ageing and Development (1997) Oct;98(1):1-35.

Sell DR, Lane MA, Johnson WA, Masoro EJ, Mock OB, Reiser KM, Fogarty JF, Cutler RG, Ingram DK, Roth GS, Monnier VM: "Longevity and the genetic determination of collagen glycoxidation kinetics in mammalian senescence." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1996) 93:485-409.

Sherratt EJ, Thomas AW, Alcolado JC: "Mitochondrial DNA defects: a widening clinical spectrum of disorders." Clin Sci (Colch) (1997) Mar;92(3):225-235.

Shmookler Reis RJ, Ebert RH 2nd: "Genetics of aging: current animal models." Experimental Gerontology (1996) Jan;31(1-2):69-81.

Smith DW: "Evolution of longevity in mammals." Mechanisms of Ageing and Development (1995) Jun 30;81(1):51-60.

Sullivan R: "Contributions to senescence: non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins." Arch Physiol Biochem (1996) Dec;104(7):797-806.

Terman A, Brunk UT: "Lipofuscin: mechanisms of formation and increase with age." APMIS (1998) Feb;106(2):265-276.

Thorpe SR, Baynes JW: "Role of the Maillard reaction in diabetes mellitus and diseases of aging." Drugs and Aging (1996) Aug;9(2):69-77.

Vaziri H, Benchimol S: "From telomere loss to p53 induction and activation of a DNA-damage pathway at senescence: the telomere loss/DNA damage model of cell aging." Experimental Gerontology (1996) Jan;31(1-2):295-301.

Vilar-Rojas C, Guzman-Grenfell AM, Hicks JJ: "Participation of oxygen-free radicals in the oxido-reduction of proteins." Arch Med Res (1996) 27(1):1-6.

Villeponteau B: "The heterochromatin loss model of aging." Experimental Gerontology (1997) Jul;32(4-5):383-394.

Wang E: "Regulation of apoptosis resistance and ontogeny of age-dependent diseases." Experimental Gerontology (1997) Jul;32(4-5):471-484.

Warner HR: "Aging and regulation of apoptosis." Curr Top Cell Regul (1997) 35:107-121.

Wei YH, "Oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA mutations in human aging." Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. (1998) Jan;217(1):53-63.

Weng NP, Palmer LD, Levine BL, Lane HC, June CH, Hodes RJ: "Tales of tails: regulation of telomere length and telomerase activity during lymphocyte development, differentiation, activation, and aging." Immunological Reviews (1997) Dec;160:43-54.

Wheaton K, Atadja P, Riabowol K: "Regulation of transcription factor activity during cellular aging." Biochem Cell Biol (1996) 74(4):523-534.

Woodhead AD: "Aging, the fishy side: an appreciation of Alex Comfort's studies." Experimental Gerontology (1998) Jan;33(1-2):39-51.

Yancik R: "Cancer burden in the aged: an epidemiologic and demographic overview." Cancer (1997) Oct 1;80(7):1273-1283.

Yin D: "Studies on age pigments evolving into a new theory of biological aging." Gerontology (1995) 41 Suppl 2:159-172.

Ying W: "Deleterious network hypothesis of aging." Medical Hypotheses (1997) Feb;48(2):143-148.

Young A: "Ageing and physiological functions." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biologic(1997) Dec 29;352(1363):1837-1843.

Zs -Nagy I: "The membrane hypothesis of aging: its relevance to recent progress in genetic research." Journal of Molecular Medicine (1997) Oct;75(10):703-714.

First edition

Arking, Robert, Biology of Aging: Observations and Principles, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1991.

Bittles, A.H., and K. J. Collins, The Biology of Human Ageing, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986.

Brookbank, John W., The Biology of Aging, Harper and Row, Publishers, New York, 1990.

Carola, Robert, John P. Harley, and Charles R. Noback, Human Anatomy and Physiology, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York, 1990.

Carola, Robert, John P. Harley, and Charles R. Noback, Human Anatomy and Physiology, second edition, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, New York, 1992.

Danon, D., N. W. Shock, and M. Marois, Aging; A Challenge to Science and Society, Oxford University Press, New York, 1981.

Davis, Bernard B., and W. Gibson Wood, eds., Homeostatic Functions and Aging, Aging Series, Vol. 30, Raven Press, N.Y., 1985.

Kenney, Richard A., Physiology of Aging, Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1982.

Kent, Barbara, and Robert N. Butler, Human Aging Research: Concepts and Techniques, in Aging Series Volume 34, Raven Press, N.Y., 1988.

Lamb, Marion, Biology of Aging, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1977.

Maranto, Gina, "Aging: Can We Slow the Inevitable?", Discover, pp. 17-25, December 1984.

Marieb, Elaine N., Human Anatomy and Physiology, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Redwood City, California, 1989.

Marieb, Elaine N., Human Anatomy and Physiology, The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Redwood City, California, 1992.

Rockstein, Morris, and Marvin Sussman, Biology of Aging, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, Calif.,1979.

Schneider, Edward L., and John W. Rowe, eds., Handbook of the Biology of Aging, third edition, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, 1990.

Shock, Nathan W., Richard C. Greulich, Reubin Andres, David Arenberg, Paul T. Costa, Edward G. Lakatta, and Jordan D. Tobin, Normal Human Aging: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging,U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH Publication No. 84- 2450, 1984.

Supii, Sari, Aging: The Methuselah Syndrome, videotape, WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston, 1982.

Timiras, Paola S., ed., Physiological Basis of Geriatrics, MacMillan Publ. Co., N. Y., 1988.

Van De Graff, Kent. M., and Stuart Ira Fox, Concepts of Human Anatomy and Physiology, second edition, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa, 1989.

Van De Graff, Kent. M., and Stuart Ira Fox, Concepts of Human Anatomy and Physiology, third edition, Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa, 1992.

Wantz, Molly, and John E. Gay, The Aging Process: A Health Perspective, Winthrop Publishers, Inc., Cambridge, 1981.

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