Arthritis - Outline

Presented as part of symposium on Diseases of Old Age at the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, March 2, 2002, Pittsburgh, PA

Go to detailed notes

Return to Main Index

Return to Site map
Normal joint structure and functions

Diarthrotic (synovial joints)  
         1. Overall functions
         2. Structure
     Symphysis joints
         1. Structure
         2. Overall functions

         1. Types
         2. Incidence

         1. Effects on joints
         2. Demographics
         3. Causes
a. primary osteoarthritis
             b. secondary OA
         4. Joints affected
         5. Development
         6. Signs and Symptoms
         7. Treatments
a. avoid joint trauma
             b. lose weight
             c. analgesics
             d. NASAIDS
             e. hyaluronan injections
             f. collagen hydrolysate
             g. mild exercise
             h. selective muscle strengthening
             i. rest
             j. assistive devices (e.g., joint supports, cane, walker, wheel chair)
             k. proper foot wear
             m. heat or cold applications
             n. topical salves and ointments
             o. surgery
             p. psychological support

Rheumatoid arthritis
         1. Characteristics
         2. Effects on joints
         3. Demographics
         4. Causes
         5. Joints affected
         6. Development
         7. Signs and Symptoms
         8. Treatments
a. *** try to find better identification of risk factors and pre-clinical diagnostic tests and screening to initiate prevention and treatments before serious effects develop
             b. rest
             c. analgesics
             d. NASAIDS
             e. hydroxychloroquine
             f. ***disease-modifying anti-rheumatoid drugs (DMARDs)
                 1. expensive
                 2. ***methotrexate
                 3. ***celecoxib (Celebrex) (anti-inflammatory and analgesic)
                 4. ***leflunomide (Arava)
                 5. ***enterecept (Enebrel) (a protein)
                 6. ***infliximib (injected) (a mouse/human chimeric monoclonal antibody)
             g. steroidal anti-inflammatory medications
             h. *** drugs under study
             i. Protein A immunoadsorption column
             j. good nutrition
             k. heat or cold applications
             l. surgery
             m. psychological support or therapy
             n. stress reduction

Gouty arthritis
         1. Effects on joints
         2. Demographics
         3. Causes (risk factors)
         4. Development
         5. Signs and Symptoms
         6. Treatments
             b. steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
             c. colchicine
             d. allopurinol

Return to Top of page

Return to Main Index

Return to Site map
Copyright 2017 - Augustine G. DiGiovanna - All rights reserved.
This material MAY be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in any data base or retrieval system ONLY under one of the following two conditions: (1) If no individual, group, organization, institution, company, corporation or other entity is charged for its use and only for use by instructors and students in courses where students are required to purchase the book HUMAN AGING: BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES by Augustine G. DiGiovanna, The McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, 1994 or 2000; (2) If prior written permission is obtained from Augustine G. DiGiovanna.