Challenges met and problems solved
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1. Before the exam for ease, efficiency, and adaptibility
    a. Making exams that cover the material but have a predetermined number of points
    b. Making exams fit the time allowed
    c. Making exams for different sections equivalent in value
    d. Making exams proportionate in value to the amount of material required for the exam
    e. Adjusting the size or value of exams when the semester gets off schedule (usually behind schedule)
    f. Adding or deleting exams during the semester

2. After the exam for accuracy and fairness
    a. Making the grades representative of their meaning (e.g., as defined by you or by your institution)
    b. "Curving"
    c. Adjusting for bad questions
    d. Adjusting for unusual test conditions
    e. Allowing for "extra credit" questions
    f. Adjusting for differences among different sections
    g. Adjusting for legitimate student feedback and constructive criticisms 

3. Make-up exams for ease and equity
    a. Preparing make-up exams with the same number of points as the original exam
    b. Equating performance on a make-up exam with performance on the original exam

4. Calculating grades for clarity, predictability, and accuracy
    a. Informing students of their level of achievement all during the course 
    b. Informing students of what they have to "get on the next tests" or "get on the final exam" to end up with a specific grade
    c. Determining an accurate and precise numerical value for each student regardless of how well or how poorly a student does during the semester
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Factors for which I make adjustments
    Amount of material covered prior to the exam 
    Difficulty of material 
    Nature and quality of my presentations 
    Curving to achieve a certain number or percentage of students in each grade range (I usually do not do this.) 
    Bad questions or easy questions 
    Unusual test conditions 
    Extra credit questions 
    Differences among different classes or sections of the same course 
    Student feedback about the exam (e.g., "You told us to omit that section or the notes".) 

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Copyright 2004 A.G. DiGiovanna, Salisbury University, Maryland. All rights reserved.